"ETHANOL PRODUCTION USING XYLITOL SYNTHESIS …

AB - Aims/hypothesis Increased NEFA levels, characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus, contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. While NEFA-induced insulin resistance was formerly attributed to decreased glycolysis, it is likely that glucose transport is the rate-limiting defect. Recently, the plant-derived sugar alcohol xylitol has been shown to have favourable metabolic effects in various animal models. Furthermore, its derivative xylulose 5-phosphate may prevent NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis. We therefore examined whether and how xylitol might prevent NEFAinduced insulin resistance. Methods We examined the ability of xylitol to prevent NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Sustained ∼1.5-fold elevations in NEFA levels were induced with Intralipid/heparin infusions during 5 h euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies in 24 conscious non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, with or without infusion of xylitol. Results Intralipid infusion reduced peripheral glucose uptake by ∼25%, predominantly through suppression of glycogen synthesis. Co-infusion of xylitol prevented the NEFAinduced decreases in both glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Although glycolysis was increased by xylitol infusion alone, there was minimal NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis, which was not affected by co-infusion of xylitol. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that xylitol prevented NEFA-induced insulin resistance, with favourable effects on glycogen synthesis accompanying the improved insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This suggests that this pentose sweetener has beneficial insulin-sensitising effects.

(1970) found a stimulation of testicular protein and RNA biosynthesis in rats fed xylitol.

The current processes for xylitol manufacture, based on either chemical synthesis or fermentation, all rely on the use of pure d -xylose as a feedstock, resulting in relatively high cost of production.


Synthesis of Xylitol-Polyester from Palm Fatty ..

(1970) Effect of xylitol on testicular protein and RNO biosynthesis of rats, Endocrinol.

Aims/hypothesis Increased NEFA levels, characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus, contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. While NEFA-induced insulin resistance was formerly attributed to decreased glycolysis, it is likely that glucose transport is the rate-limiting defect. Recently, the plant-derived sugar alcohol xylitol has been shown to have favourable metabolic effects in various animal models. Furthermore, its derivative xylulose 5-phosphate may prevent NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis. We therefore examined whether and how xylitol might prevent NEFAinduced insulin resistance. Methods We examined the ability of xylitol to prevent NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Sustained ∼1.5-fold elevations in NEFA levels were induced with Intralipid/heparin infusions during 5 h euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies in 24 conscious non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, with or without infusion of xylitol. Results Intralipid infusion reduced peripheral glucose uptake by ∼25%, predominantly through suppression of glycogen synthesis. Co-infusion of xylitol prevented the NEFAinduced decreases in both glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Although glycolysis was increased by xylitol infusion alone, there was minimal NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis, which was not affected by co-infusion of xylitol. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that xylitol prevented NEFA-induced insulin resistance, with favourable effects on glycogen synthesis accompanying the improved insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This suggests that this pentose sweetener has beneficial insulin-sensitising effects.