algae; photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; phytoplankton

Notice that the oxidation state of the carbon atom has changed from +4 to 0, and so an overall reduction reaction has occurred. Here, "(CH2O)" represents a carbohydrate. You'll also notice that there's been a change in the oxidation state of oxygen, since its oxidation state is almost always "-2" when combined with other atoms, but it is "0" in its natural state of O2. So, oxygen (water) is oxidized in the overall process.

photosynthestic membersof the Kingdom Monera

Smith EC and Griffith H (1996) The occurrence of the chloroplast pyrenoid is correlated with the activity of a CO2‐concentrating mechanism and carbon isotope discrimination in lichens and bryophytes. Planta 198: 6–16.


Molecules of ATP are used by all living things to power the cells.

The conversion of lightenergy to chemical energy occurs in the cells of ...

During this process, QH2 passes its two protons back across the plasma membrane into the periplasm when its two electrons are passed on to cytochrome bc1. However, cytochrome c2 is only a one-electron acceptor, and the transfer from QH2 occurs in a two-stage "Q-cycle" with the result that, for every two electrons that reach cytochrome c2, 4 H+ are translocated into the periplasm from the cytoplasm, thereby generating an H+ gradient. Dissipation of this chemical gradient powers ATP synthesis.


Photosynthesis in plants occurs in two stages.

Most photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of plants.) Chlorophyll has many different chemical make-ups, depending on the plant or bacterium that contains it.

Where does photosynthesis take place? - Learning can …

Moroney JV and Somanchi A (1999) How do algae concentrate CO2 to increase the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation? Plant Physiology 119: 9–16.

This tutorial introduces photosynthesis

So, what you want is a filter that will keep ammonia and nitrites at absolute 0 while preserving some bio-available minerals, nitrates and CO2. This filtration capacity must occur even when organic wastes may suddenly spike (such as due to plant deaths, fish deaths, over feeding, temporary blackouts, etc.).

6 Answers - In what part of a plant does photosynthesis occur?

Both the LHC and the reaction centers are membrane bound structures but there are no chloroplasts in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The electron transfer processes occur within the cell membrane and the overall process is a cyclic one (i.e., there is no net oxidation-reduction). Protons are transferred across the membrane, from the cytoplasmic side to the outside, establishing a proton gradient whose dissipation drives ATP synthesis. A similar situation holds for the cyanobacteria and plants, but in these organisms, the process occurs in chloroplasts and the overall reaction is not a cyclic one.

most photosynthesis occurs in the oceans, ..

The Light Reactions(4.1) In the chemical reaction for photosynthesis, six molecules of water and six molecules of carbon dioxide react in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight to produce one molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen.