Effects of different colors of light on the photosynthesis rate.

This is another concept to consider that we do not know all the "mechanisms" that drive it.
Basically photoinhibition is the damage to the light harvesting reactions of the photosynthetic capacity of a vascular plant, algae, or cyanobacterium by excess light energy trapped by the chloroplast.
This process can occur in in all organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. In both plants & cyanobacteria, blue light causes photoinhibition more efficiently than other wavelengths of visible light, although it has been demonstrated the red light can cause photoinhibition as well.

Indoor lighting: Provides a source of radiant energy for green

What's noteworthy is the latest licensed version of even the newest Cree emitters are not available over the counter to even to the majority of LED builders that do NOT have the license rights.
One of the differences between the generic emitter bins and the licensed/patented emitters is that the generic bins are in common light Kelvins used by the lighting industry in general such as "cool white" & "warm white". In other words NOT SPECIFICALLY designed or even "tweaked" for aquarium reef use!
There is nothing "magical" about licensing as some would have you believe, it it is simple part of business that if you want to tweak a XB-D emitter to certain specification it will cost a licensing fee.

Effects of Blue and Red Light on the Rate of Photosynthesis

As I noted earlier, not all emitters are equal , commonly sold for other applications. These are only as good as their correct wavelength output (Kelvin Temperature/Nanometers). One cannot compare a computer that uses an exclusive patented Intel processor to one that uses maybe a similar, but generic version of this processor. As with a computer processor company, an LED emitter manufacturer is going to have exclusive licenses/patents as well as generic versions.


The portion of photosynthesis takes place in the STROMA (clear areas of the chloroplast) and does not require light energy to proceed, but does require the products the (ATP and NADPH) of the light Rx. These are sometimes referred to as the "driving force" behind the Dark Rx. The Dark Rx is also referred to as the Calvin Cycle or the Carbon Fixation Cycle. This is where Carbon Dioxide is used in the photosynthesis process, and the CO2 provides the carbon atom which is the structural backbone of the glucose molecule.

What is the overall equation for photosynthesis 6CO2+12H2O+ light ..


Lights as they apply to aquarium use have evolved/changed considerable since I have been in the hobby & professionally employed in aquarium set-up & design.
We often used "hardware store" warm white T12 fluorescent lights, just in larger "quantities" to make up for the poor "quality" of light, even while planted freshwater could be kept, not so with ANY photosynthetic reef life.
Early on lights such as the "Aquarilux" came out which still was heavier on the "warm" colors, it also had more blue.
Later the Trichromatics & Triton lamps came out with spectrums focusing on the daylight 6500 Kelvin temperature, these made growing planted aquariums easier with less lights to do the same job as earlier lights.
We also had actinic blue lights become available, these mixed with other lights made it possible in the beginning to keep some photosynthetic reef life, although initially these did not thrive. Later T6 & T5 advancements along with Metal Halide lights allowed us to not only keep delicate photosynthetic reef life, but for this life to thrive.
We now have T2, SHO, & LEDs of which the later have lowered considerably the input energy for the quantity of output energy of light that we need for our aquarium keeping applications.

the wavelengths of light that ..

Nancy Kiang of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) explains, "Chl extends the useful solar radiation for oxygenic photosynthesis by 18% — meaning life can use more wavelengths of light (i.e. more types of light-producing stars) to survive. This implies a lot of cool things."