Efficient Synthesis of Doxorubicin ..

AB - 2DG causes cytotoxicity in cancer cells by disrupting thiol metabolism while Doxorubicin (DOX) induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we examined the combined cytotoxic action of 2DG and DOX in rapidly dividing T47D breast cancer cells vs. slowly growing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. T47D cells exposed to the combination of 2DG/DOX significantly decreased cell survival compared to controls, while 2DG/DOX had no effect on MCF-7 cells. 2DG/DOX also disrupted the oxidant status of T47D treated cells, decreased intracellular total glutathione and increased glutathione disulfide (%GSSG) compared to MCF-7 cells. Lipid peroxidation increased in T47D cells treated with 2DG and/or DOX, but not in MCF-7 cells. T47D cells were significantly protected by NAC, indicating that the combined treatment exerts its action by increasing ROS production and disrupting antioxidant stores. When we inhibited glutathione synthesis with BSO, T47D cells became more sensitive to 2DG/DOX-induced cytotoxicity, but NAC significantly reversed this cytotoxic effect. Finally, 2DG/DOX, and BSO significantly increased the %GSSG in T47D cells, an effect which was also reversed by NAC. Our results suggest that exposure of rapidly dividing breast cancer cells to 2DG/DOX enhances cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and via disruptions to thiol metabolism.

Efficient Synthesis of Doxorubicin Melanotransferrin p97 Conjugates Through ..

N2 - 2DG causes cytotoxicity in cancer cells by disrupting thiol metabolism while Doxorubicin (DOX) induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we examined the combined cytotoxic action of 2DG and DOX in rapidly dividing T47D breast cancer cells vs. slowly growing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. T47D cells exposed to the combination of 2DG/DOX significantly decreased cell survival compared to controls, while 2DG/DOX had no effect on MCF-7 cells. 2DG/DOX also disrupted the oxidant status of T47D treated cells, decreased intracellular total glutathione and increased glutathione disulfide (%GSSG) compared to MCF-7 cells. Lipid peroxidation increased in T47D cells treated with 2DG and/or DOX, but not in MCF-7 cells. T47D cells were significantly protected by NAC, indicating that the combined treatment exerts its action by increasing ROS production and disrupting antioxidant stores. When we inhibited glutathione synthesis with BSO, T47D cells became more sensitive to 2DG/DOX-induced cytotoxicity, but NAC significantly reversed this cytotoxic effect. Finally, 2DG/DOX, and BSO significantly increased the %GSSG in T47D cells, an effect which was also reversed by NAC. Our results suggest that exposure of rapidly dividing breast cancer cells to 2DG/DOX enhances cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and via disruptions to thiol metabolism.


A+ total synthesis of etoposide | OnlineDrug☀

Synthesis of Silane–grafted magnetic nanoparticles for loading of doxorubicin Synthesis of ..

The early effects of 4′-epidoxorubicin (Epi-Adriamycin) on liver regeneration and late effects on liver function were studied after a standard partial hepatectomy in rats. 4′-epidoxorubicin was given intravenously immediately preoperatively. Neither suppression nor delay in DNA synthesis (analyzed by incorporation of3H-thymidine) during the first 72 h postoperatively was registered after a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. Four weeks following the dose of 5 mg/kg a slight decrease was found in liver weight (8%). body weight (8%) and plasma albumin values (9%) compared with the partial hepatectomized controls. Total protein, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase were not changed. A dose of 2 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters. No histological signs of liver and kidney damage were seen. The results indicate that preoperative treatment with 4′-epidoxorubicin combined with partial hepatectomy may possibly be used in humans without clinically significant impairment of liver regeneration and function of the remaining liver and without histological detectable nephrotoxicity. The dosage of 4′-epidoxorubicin must, however, be adjusted according to species differences in pharmacokinetics.