Abstract. The growth of shoots and roots of rice( L., cv. Taichung Native 1) seedlings was significantlyinhibited when the seeds were subjected to NaCl stress. NaCl markedlydecreased the mobilization of starch in endosperm. Results also showed that-amylase activities in endosperm were reduced when rice seeds weregerminated in the presence of NaCl. NaCl-inhibition of -amylaseactivities was counteracted by gibberellic acid (GA3).GA3 reduced NaCl-inhibition of shoot growth, but not of rootgrowth. Sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose) were able to reduceNaCl-induced growth inhibition of shoots and roots. The possible mechanism bywhich shoot growth and root growth in NaCl media respond differently toGA3 is discussed.
The use of gibberellic acid as a preharvest treatment is extensively documented. While the postharvest treatment reported is mainly on the use of GA to extend the shelf-life and longevity of ornamental flowers, few reports are available on fruits and vegetables. However, some discrepancies have been reported on the effect of postharvest application of GA on chlorophyll content. Siddiqui et al reported a decrease of c.a. 50% in chlorophylls of mango fruits stored twelve days at room temperature of 28 ± 2°C, and no difference in effect was noted between the different GA concentrations used.
On the contrary, many studies reported that GA retained green colour of fruits and chlorophylls. Gross et al reported that GA treatments delayed the senescence and retained chlorophyll in persimmon for long periods. Pre and postharvest applications of GA also retained the green fruit colour of citrus fruits. Mahajan et al used different concentrations of GA ranging from 25 to 75 ppm on guava fruit and no significant difference in effect was noted among these concentrations. Singh and Dankhar reported that postharvest application of GA retained chlorophylls in okra during storage and retention was higher even with visible senescence. They also noted that chlorophyll a decreased more rapidly than chlorophyll b which surprisingly exceeded the content of chlorophyll a in some fruits.
Janowska and Jerzy investigated the effects of GA on the longevity of leaves and noted that GA reduced the degradation of chlorophylls, but no significance was noted between the concentrations and exposure time. Indeed, the mechanisms of GA on chlorophylls are not clearly understood, but it is likely that GA delays the activity of chlorophyllase during ripening of GA treated strawberry fruit as reported by Martínez et al , and/or promotes chlorophyll synthesis . Indeed, the visible colour of plants results from the predominant pigments, even though other pigments are present but are not visible unless the predominant is degraded. Consequently, the degradation of chlorophylls causes colours change in the tissues from green to many other colours such as yellow and orange observed in ripe and senescent tissues .
Calcium chloride is widely used in agriculture and food preservation as well. Investigations showed that postharvest use of calcium chloride maintains firmness and visual quality, therefore, extending the shelf life of the fresh produce. It was reported that dipping fruits in calcium chloride was effective in delaying senescence and extended figs and jujube shelf-life during storage. On the other hand, calcium chloride treatments have also been reported as effective in reducing chlorophyll . Calcium chloride has also been used in combination with gibberellic acid and other organic acids. Bhanja and Lenka combined gibberellic acid and calcium chloride treatments of sapota () fruit, and they noted that treatments reduced the physiological weight losses and percentage rotting of fruits during storage, and the shelf-life was extended to 36 days compared to control (8 days).
Indeed, these results are not in contradiction with our results, as we noted that chlorophyll a content is much lower than chlorophyll b. Even though chlorophyll a decreased chlorophyll b did not vary much, therefore, making the change in total chlorophylls (a+b) not significant as shown in Figure 2.
Gibberellic Acid for Fruit Set and Seed Germination
The Gibberellic acid falls under the category Organic chemicals of GST bill and its corresponding HSN code is 2900. The HSN codes help exporters and importers in India to know product classification code to use various government and non government agencies in India. Use our online GST Tax Rate Calculator to find the tax rate levied on the particular product. The GST rate percentage for Gibberellic acid is fixed at the rate of 12.
Total synthesis of gibberellins A15 and A37
Prior to packaging and storage, cabbages were sprayed six times using spray bottles with the following solutions: gibberellic acid of 150 mg/L (GA1) and 300 mg/L (GA2), and calcium chloride (40 g/L) (CC). Control samples were sprayed with distilled water. After spraying, samples were left to dry at room temperature, then stored at 10 ± 1°C and 90-95 % RH during 14 days.
The action of exogenous gibberellic acid on isocitrate ..
Tannins are known to inhibit pathogenic fungi; the presence of in the leaves of the plants may act as antimicrobial agents. Phenolic compounds may be the reason for the therapeutic, antiseptic, antifungal or bactericidal properties of the plants (). investigated the effect of GA3 treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) on Dahlia applied by three methods i.e., tubers soaking before planting, foliage spraying and tubers soaking+foliage spraying. They found that all tested treatments of GA3 succeeded in improving the studied vegetative traits as well as leaf determinations. The investigation was carried out to study the effect of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) and Indol 3-acetic acid (IAA) on the growth and phytochemical composition of .
Total Synthesis of Lysergic Acid
Many investigations have reported on TPC of white cabbage heads, and different TPC has been determined. For example and among literature cited, Leja et al reported values ranging between 12.58 and 47.6 mg GAE/100 g FW. The large variations of TPC in white cabbages vary with different factors such as the botanical cabbage group , variety , extraction solvents used , and growing region .
Many works reported on the total phenolics of cabbage, but few exist on the variation of TPC during storage, and no work reports on the effects of GA and calcium chloride on TPC in stored cabbage. Hounsome et al studied the variation of different phenolic compounds during storage and they noted that longterm storage significantly reduced the content of many phenolic compounds such as caffeic, syringic, gallic and trihyroxybenzoic acids, as well as flavonoids, while other phenolics such as cinnamic, dimethoxybenzoic acid, chalcone and flavone were less affected by storage. Hagen et al stored another Brassica variety called curly kale () and noted that total phenolics increased slightly after six weeks storage at 1°C. Nevertheless, in stored lettuce, escarole and rocket salad tissues, TPC varied differently. TPC increased after one day but decreased after three days storage at 4°C. In escarole, TPC increased significantly after three days, while in rocket tissues TPC decreased after three days at the same temperature .