Both the new education and governmental structure of Japan passed in the 1880's and 1890's was essential to Japanese stability and economic and industrial growth.
The more general statement of Hardin's tragedy of thecommons which follows is divided into five sections. In thefirst, the theoretic nature of Hardin's argument isemphasized. In the second, several of Hardin's originalassumptions are shown to be restrictive and unnecessary. Thethird offers four general premises which seem empiricallycertain. The fourth gives a general statement of the human causesof the breakdown of the commons. It demonstrates the same inbuiltcontradiction between what benefits the individual or the humanspecies and what is necessary to the welfare of the whole. Thefifth part concerns ethical theory. It shows that the firstnecessary condition for acceptable moral behavior is to avoid thetragedy of the commons. Inevitably, meeting this goal requiresholistic or coerced restraint in order to assure that peoplenever fail to live within the narrow limits of the land andresource use which the Earth's biosystem can sustain. Thuspeople's first moral duty is to live as responsible andsustaining members of the world's community of livingthings.
A General Statement of the Tragedy of the Commons
economic growth and poverty in the developing world, ' … the essays in this Interaction between Population Growth and Environmental entitled Development and the Environment: Empirical Evidence from India STATEMENT BY AUTHOR ..
Population Growth Poverty Thesis Statement
Malthus on Population - University of Colorado Boulder Population growth appears today as THE major factor determining among which Malthus' "Essay on Population" was perhaps the most important, today the of the process of capitalist development before him; i.e., widespread poverty, Can rapid population growth be good for economic development 15 Apr 2010 First, despite Africa's rapid population growth and Europe's stagnation ..
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Population, poverty, environment, and climate - UCSB Geography 2 Theory: population growth, climate change, and poverty to 1798, with Thomas Malthus's statement that, “The power of population is indefinitely greater than Is rapid population growth a symptom, rather than a cause, of low national output .
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Population Growth and Poverty - Springer The Impact of Population Growth on Well-being in Developing Countries Attention is paid to both the standard definition of poverty and to the broader concept Population Matters for Sustainable Development - UNFPA in the Interagency Consultation on Population and Sustainable Development, organized .
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The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Tolive, any organism must have a source of energy (for example,food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenanceand work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600kilocalories a day ("maintenance calories"). Anythingthat he does over and above merely staying alive will be definedas work, and is supported by "work calories" which hetakes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call workin common speech; they are also required for all forms ofenjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing musicand writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it isobvious what we must do: We must make the work calories perperson approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals,no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art Ithink that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, thatmaximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal isimpossible.
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Hardin's argument is of great importance and is powerfullypersuasive. But, I believe, he has made some unnecessaryassumptions. For example, his assumption of individualism and thefree market system and his proof of the necessity of some form ofsocietal coercion allows many liberals, humanists, religiousleaders, and defenders of democracy (whose never-questioned moraland political convictions take no account of biologicalprinciples or physical limits) to reject his thesis withoutunderstanding it. Again his concern about over-population allowssome people to accuse him of disregarding the environmentaldamage caused by wealthy nations and their run-away system ofproduction and consumption. By pinning on him epithets like"racist," "elitist," "self-centeredegoist," "capitalist," "fascist," and"apologist for private property," these critics findeasy excuses for disregarding what is disturbing andrevolutionary in Hardin's essay. Misdirected charges allowpeople to disregard the essential thesis, namely, that physicaland biological determinants limit the range of options availablefor moral and political life.