Firstly, consider it as a measure offitting the role of student.

,S. R., & Ferguson, P. (2007). A longitudinal study of grade retention:Academic and behavioral outcomes of retained students through adolescence. , 314-339

The first topic is what determines whether students stay on or drop out atuniversities.

Furthermore, prior to NCLB, research was conducted thatdemonstrated that students who were retained prior to ninth grade increasedtheir chances of dropping out of high school by 40-50% (Roderick, 1994).Comparable to Roderick, another study concluded that students who were retainedhad a 20%-30% more likely chance of dropping out (& Smith, 1990). They found that even students from large affluent suburbanareas had a 4% chance of dropout after grade repetition. The research presentedhas established that retention is a costly intervention for students in thatdropping out becomes a prominent possibility. Interestingly, since NCLB, theretention rate of students has decreased from 11% in 1994 to 5% in 2004 forgrades Kindergarten through five (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES],2006). Simultaneously, the dropout rate decreased from 34% in 1994 to 21% in2004. In the middle school setting, the retention rates showed no measurabledifferences. In summary, while retention rates and dropout rates have decreasedin elementary schools, the rates for middle and high schools remain high andaccording to the NCES (2006) is still relatively high and a United Statescrisis.

Help yourstudents learn how to learn the content in your discipline.

The most commonly referred to model in the student retention/dropoutliterature is Tinto's.

d) And how it is not just about individual knowledge so much as workingcontacts: having access to the socially distributed resources important tobeing a student.I'm dubious because:
a) The support and democratic spheres don't seem to affect all or even moststudents; but the others do.

"Factors Affecting Retention of Students in Grades K-2" …

As grade retention is directly related to dropouts, it ishighly associated with difficulties inschool and outside school ( et al., 2007;Roderick, 1994; Byrnes, 1989; Alexander, ,& Dauber, 1994). outcomes arebased on a theory derived by Erikson that the social environment combined withbiological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that mustbe resolved (, 1997). After additionally reviewing NCES data, statisticsshowed that 5-7% of students in grades 6-8 had been retained (U.S. Departmentof Education, 2008). According to Erikson’s theory, middle school grades arewhen students begin to develop a sense of self. They begin to pick up on theirown social and personal identity (). With thatin mind, one has to reflect on the effects of retention from a developmentalperspective. From one grade to the next, students are with the same peersunless they are retained which causes peer separation (Alexander et al, 1994).Separating a student from his or her peers will inevitably cause self-esteemissues. A child who is retained must feel terrified and unsure about themselvesif he or she is told to stay back in a grade that was just completed as his orher friends move on to the next grade. For a child that is just realizing whothey are, this could be extremely deleterious. The child may become the subjectof hurtful jokes, bullying, and many other harmful effects. In summary, whengrade retention is being considered as an option, outcomes must be addressed as well.

3 Tips for Improving College Student Retention

Tinto (1987) also stressed thatexternal social systems may interact with the above reasons and further underminea student’s ability to persist in college. These external systems may involvefriends who didn’t go to college, parents who are anxious about their childchanging in college, conflicts with work, family demands, and so on.

Student Retention Essay - 576 Words - StudyMode

The review of theliterature shows that there have been studies performed to demonstrate thelowered outcomes of students. Onestudy demonstrated that self-esteem and attitude toward school weresignificantly lower after retention as compared to promoted students byanalyzing a group of 20 different studies (Holmes & Matthews, 1984).Thereafter, Holmes (1989) increased his previousstudy to 63 studies. Consequently, he found that retained students typicallyshowed a lower self-concept, poor attendance, and negative attitudes towardschool.