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**APMA 2470, APMA 2480. Topics in Fluid Dynamics**

Initial review of topics selected from flow stability, turbulence, turbulent mixing, surface tension effects, and thermal convection. Followed by focused attention on the dynamics of dispersed two-phase flow and complex fluids.

Overview and introduction to dynamical systems. Local and global theory of maps. Attractors and limit sets. Lyapunov exponents and dimensions. Fractals: definition and examples. Lorentz attractor, Hamiltonian systems, homoclinic orbits and Smale horseshoe orbits. Chaos in finite dimensions and in PDEs. Can be used to fulfill the senior seminar requirement in applied mathematics. Prerequisites: Differential equations and linear algebra.

## Explore Hypothesis Testing in Business Statistics

This course is concerned with the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems arising in the context of mathematical modeling. The focus is on qualitative analysis of solutions as trajectories in phase space, including the role of invariant manifolds as organizers of behavior. Local and global bifurcations, which occur as system parameters change, will be highlighted, along with other dimension reduction methods that arise when there is a natural time-scale separation. Concepts of bi-stability, spontaneous oscillations, and chaotic dynamics will be explored through investigation of conceptual mathematical models arising in the physical and biological sciences.

## Hypothesis Testing Explained - Statistics Tutor - Statistica

**APMA 2811G. Topics in Averaging and Metastability with Applications**Topics that will be covered include: the averaging principle for stochastic dynamical systems and in particular for Hamiltonian systems; metastability and stochastic resonance. We will also discuss applications in class and in homework problems. In particular we will consider metastability issues arising in chemistry and biology, e.g. in the dynamical behavior of proteins. The course will be largely self contained, but a course in graduate probability theory and/or stochastic calculus will definitely help.

## They are also statements of relationships between concepts

**APMA 2811A. Directed Methods in Control and System Theory**. Various general techniques have been developed for control and system problems. Many of the methods are indirect. For example, control problems are reduced to a problem involving a differential equation (such as the partial differential equation of Dynamic Programming) or to a system of differential equations (such as the canonical system of the Maximum Principle). Since these indirect methods are not always effective alternative approaches are necessary. In particular, direct methods are of interest. We deal with two general classes, namely: 1.) Integration Methods; and, 2.) Representation Methods. Integration methods deal with the integration of function space differential equations. Perhaps the most familiar is the so-called Gradient Method or curve of steepest descent approach. Representation methods utilize approximation in function spaces and include both deterministic and stochastic finite element methods. Our concentration will be on the theoretical development and less on specific numerical procedures. The material on representation methods for Levy processes is new.

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**APMA 2810Y. Discrete high-D Inferences in Genomics**

Genomics is revolutionizing biology and biomedicine and generated a mass of clearly relevant high-D data along with many important high-D discreet inference problems. Topics: special characteristics of discrete high-D inference including Bayesian posterior inference; point estimation; interval estimation; hypothesis tests; model selection; and statistical decision theory.

## Null and Alternative Hypothesis | Real Statistics Using …

**APMA 2810X. Introduction to the Theory of Large Deviations**

The theory of large deviations attempts to estimate the probability of rare events and identify the most likely way they happen. The course will begin with a review of the general framework, standard techniques (change-of-measure, subadditivity, etc.), and elementary examples (e.g., Sanov's and Cramer's Theorems). We then will cover large deviations for diffusion processes and the Wentsel-Freidlin theory. The last part of the course will be one or two related topics, possibly drawn from (but not limited to) risk-sensitive control; weak convergence methods; Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations; Monte Carlo methods. Prerequisites: APMA 2630 and 2640.