Photosynthesis makes food for plants and for animals.

The sun is a very powerful source of energy. People are always trying to harness it to make electricity, warm their houses, heat their water etc. Plants figured out how to use solar energy millions of years ago to make their food. They use the light energy from the sun (solar energy) and convert it into chemical energy that is stored as sugar (glucose) in the plant. Excess glucose is stored as starch in the leaves, roots, stems and seeds of the plant. The energy from the sun is transferred to the plants. This energy is then passed to animals when they eat plants. Whenever the plant needs energy it breaks down its stored glucose for its life processes

This process is called and is carriedout mostly in the leaves of a plant.

Students punch out small discs from leaves, float them in a syringe of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. Once gas is evolved by photosynthesis, the leaf discs rise and fall.


Measuring Photosynthesis in sun andshade leaves

Sunlight - on the other hand, is trapped in the leaves by a green pigment present in them.

How would you expect the light response curves ofthe sun and shade leaves to differ if rates of photosynthesis were expressedper unit mass of leaf chlorophyll rather than on a leaf area basis?


What has the sun got to do with photosynthesis

The NADP+ then becomes NADPH
Review of the light reaction
Photosynthesis
Making ATP
This takes place in the stroma
The dark reaction AKA the Calvin Cycle
photosynthesis is a biochemical pathway
that takes place throughout the chloroplast
photosynthesis occurs in plant cells ....
To sum up....
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Just like the chloroplast, space is maximized by having a convoluted inner membrane - the Cristae
and
Just like photosynthesis, respiration is a series of biochemical pathways that take place in different parts of the organelle.
However, a difference is the first part of respiration takes
place in the cytoplasm
Mighty Mitochondria
anaerobic vs aerobic
Occurs in the matrix.
Uses pyruvic acid as a raw material
Produces: 2 ATP, 6NADH & 2FADH2
Waste product is carbon dioxide.

The Krebs cycle: in the mitochondria
Energy is stored in the bonds between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate in ATP
when the cell needs energy it breaks that bond to create ADP
ATP the currency of the cell
Endothermic - absorbs heat, H > 0
Exothermic - releases heat,H

Endergonic - NON-SPONTANEOUS, G > 0
Exergonic - SPONTANEOUS, G

Prokaryotes rely on anaerobic respiration - without oxygen
Anaerobic respiration/ glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of ALL cells.

Can Humans Harvest The Sun's Energy Directly Like Plants?

As for any vectorial transport process, pumping CO 7 into the bundle-sheath cells in C 9 plants costs energy. In hot, dry environments, however, this cost can be much less than the energy lost by photorespiration in C 8 plants, so C 9 plants have a potential advantage. Moreover, because C 9 plants can perform photosynthesis at a lower concentration of CO 7 inside the leaf, they need to open their stomata less and therefore can fix about twice as much net carbon as C 8 plants per unit of water lost. Although the vast majority of plant species are C 8 plants, C 9 plants such as corn and sugar cane are much more effective at converting sunlight energy into biomass than C 8 plants such as cereal grains. They are therefore of special importance in world agriculture.

During photosynthesis light energy from the sun causes ..

Ifwe discover a difference, it is our task to decide whether it matches theposition of the leaves and helps the tree to perform photosynthesis aswell as it can.