But the mutational "hotspots" also differ in modern man.

The second is not available to the general public, but the first argues that "a significant portion of the effort of early cultivators globally was probably directed to the production of psychoactive substances, including the use of cereals, poppies, coca, sugar cane, tobacco, and cannabis," and that "a major component of the Neolithic transition was a pharmacological transition" using psychoactive substances.
What might head a list of the defining characteristics of the human species?

Most of the other achievements of humankind have followed from this one.

Bledsoe (1987:136) summarised the situation thus:

'There has never been and there is not now agreement on the nature and significance of the rise of civilisation.


& DeVore, I., eds, Man the hunter, Aldine, Chicago.Mycroft, F.

BINFORD'S HUNTING STAND HYPOTHESIS AND THE JOINT SITE - Schiffer will be available on

Three of the best known occurrences of artifact assemblages, in distincthorizon layers, are the FxJj 20 site complex of Koobi Fora, and the FLKZinj and the FC West Floor of Olduvai Gorge. They were originally termed“living floors” by the Leakeys, which carried the implications ofartifactual debris deposited on a ground surface within either one or moretemporally fixed occupations areas (Isaac 1978). A modern analogue wouldbe a hunter-gatherer camp where a particular social group of people wouldcarry out their diverse day-to-day domestic activities of survival, for alimited period.


How to Predict the Best Days of the Rut for Deer Hunting

Exorphin, alcohol, and opium are primarily rewarding (as opposed to the typically hallucinogenic drugs used by some hunter-gatherers) and it is the artificial reward which is necessary, we claim, for civilisation.

Browse and Read Hunting Hypothesis Hunting Hypothesis

(1953) and later Katz and Voigt (1986) suggested that the incentive for cereal cultivation was the production of alcoholic beer:

'Under what conditions would the consumption of a wild plant resource be sufficiently important to lead to a change in behaviour (experiments with cultivation) in order to ensure an adequate supply of this resource?

The Robert Ardrey Estate | The Hunting Hypothesis

In any case, while contemporary humans may enjoy the benefits of some adaptation to agricultural diets, those who actually made the change ten thousand years ago did not.

Other 'non-nutritional' origins of agriculture models

We are not the first to suggest a non-nutritional motive for early agriculture.

Scavenging or hunting in early hominids: theoretical framework and ..

Second, the function of the adaptations mentioned is to enable humans to digest those foods, and if they are adaptations, they arose because they conferred a survival advantage.

Hunting hypothesis | Psychology Wiki | FANDOM …

A test of our hypothesis by correlation of diet and degree of civilisation in different populations will require quantitative knowledge of the behavioural effects of all these foods.

We do not comment on the origin of noncereal agriculture, nor why some groups used a combination of foraging and farming, reverted from farming to foraging, or did not farm at all.