Retrieval of online handwriting by synthesis and matching

was done by AT&T Bell Labs (Coker, 1976). Lip, jaw, and tongue positions were controlled by rule. The final synthesis step was done by a formant-based terminal analog. Current efforts at KTH by Lin and Fant (1992) use a parallel synthesizer with parameters derived from an articulatory model. In the development of articulatory modeling for text to speech, we can take advantage of parallel work on speech coding based on articulatory modeling (Sondhi and Schroeter, 1987). This work focuses not only on synthesizing speech but also on how to extract appropriate vocal tract configurations. Thus, it will also help us to get articulatory data through an analysis-synthesis procedure. This section has not dealt with the important work carried out to describe speech production in terms of physical models. The inclusion of such models still lies in the future, beyond the next generation of text to speech systems, but the results of these experiments will improve the current articulatory and terminal analog models.

08/11/1992 · Automatic gate-level synthesis of speed-independent circuits

Synthesis development can be grouped into three main categories: acoustic models, articulatory models, and models based on the coding of natural speech. The last group includes both predictive coding and concatenative synthesis using speech waveforms. Acoustic and articulatory models have had a long history of development, while natural speech models represent a somewhat newer field. The first commercial systems were based on the acoustic terminal analog synthesizer. However, at that time, the voice quality was not good enough for general use, and approaches based on coding attracted increased interest. Articulatory models have been under continuous development, but so far this field has not been exposed to commercial applications due to incomplete models and high processing costs.


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One of the major problems in concatenative synthesis is to make the best selection of units and describe how to combine them. Two major factors create problems: distortion because of spectral discontinuity at the connecting points and distortion because of the limited size of the unit set. Systems using elements of different lengths depending on the target phoneme and its function have been explored by several research groups. In a paper by Olive (1990), a new method for concatenating "acoustic inventory elements" of different sizes is described. The system, developed at ATR, is also based on nonuniform units (Sagisaka et al., 1992).


Synthesis at the Speed of Codons

Results of a pilot study of direct plasmochemical synthesis of ultradispersed crystalline iron oxide phases in a high-speed pulse jet of iron-containing electrodischarge plasma that effluxes into a closed volume with the air atmosphere are presented. The synthesized powder contains all main oxide phases, including magnetite Fe3O4, maghemite γ-Fe2O3, and hematite α-Fe2O3. An important feature of the method is the formation of the metastable ε-Fe2O3 phase under normal conditions. The minimum average size of coherently diffracting domains (CDD) (particles) of the magnetic phases is observed when they are synthesized at air pressure of 1.0 atm. The powders have high magnetic properties comparable with those of compact iron oxides.

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The Klatt model is widely used in research for both general synthesis purposes and perceptual experiments. A simplified version of this system is used in all commercial products that stem from synthesis work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT): MITalk (Allen et al., 1987), DECtalk, and the system at Speech Technology Laboratory (Javkin et al., 1989). An improved version of the system has been commercialized as a research vehicle by Sensimetrics Corporation (Williams et al., 1992). Similar configurations were used in the ESPRIT/Polyglot project (Boves, 1991).

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N2 - Results of a pilot study of direct plasmochemical synthesis of ultradispersed crystalline iron oxide phases in a high-speed pulse jet of iron-containing electrodischarge plasma that effluxes into a closed volume with the air atmosphere are presented. The synthesized powder contains all main oxide phases, including magnetite Fe3O4, maghemite γ-Fe2O3, and hematite α-Fe2O3. An important feature of the method is the formation of the metastable ε-Fe2O3 phase under normal conditions. The minimum average size of coherently diffracting domains (CDD) (particles) of the magnetic phases is observed when they are synthesized at air pressure of 1.0 atm. The powders have high magnetic properties comparable with those of compact iron oxides.