Guide to Tackling Multistep Synthesis Problems

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Dec 06, 2014 · Author Topic: Organic 1 Synthesis Problems ..

The following problems are meant to be useful study tools for studentsinvolved in most undergraduate organic chemistry courses. The problemshave been color-coded to indicate whether they are:

Organic Chemistry Practice Problems at Michigan State University

One of these will be on the exam, as well as a "surprise" synthesis problem

A special paragraph will be dedicated to the problems caused by peptide aggregation in the course of the synthesis. This phenomenon is a major cause of trouble as it is difficult to predict, is sequence dependent and no universal solution has been found up to now.

The most common behavioural problem is ..

After 160 hours have passed since the start of the electrolysis, the process is finished. The electrolyte is filtered a few times with the help of a medicinal gauze, in order to filter out larger unwanted particles. After that, the electrolyte was further filtered through cotton wool placed in a bottleneck (of a larger two-liter bottle) that was cut off. Gradually, by repetitive filtration, a yellow colored clear solution was obtained. Since the filtration was progressing at a very slow rate, I took a smaller amount of the already filtered solution, and the rest of the solution was slowly filtered for a few more hours. In the filtered solution, along with sodium chlorate, there was also some sodium hypochlorite. Because of that, the solution was heated until the boiling point was reached, and was kept at that temperature for about 15 minutes. Thanks to this step, all the sodium hypochlorite converted to more sodium chlorate (which is also the basis of the hypochlorite method of chlorate synthesis). After heating for 15 minutes, I checked the pH of the solution, and added a bit of sodium hydroxide solution so that the pH would get close to 8. If one assumes that all the NaCl passed into NaClO3, that would mean that from the starting 350 grams of sodium chloride, one could get around 627 grams of sodium chlorate, which is only possible in theory (the yield of this type of homemade cells is mostly around 50%). Although the yield of the process was surely much less than 100%, I calculated the amount of needed potassium chloride for the reaction of the ion exchange by taking into account the theoretical yield of 100%. That way, I was sure that all of the sodium chlorate passed into potassium chlorate. However, some of the potassium chloride remained unused (which is not a problem because thanks to its high solubility, it remains in the solution and doesn't cause problems when extracting potassium chlorate).

Language development and literacy: Synthesis

An algorithm is a procedure, applicable to a particular type of exercise, which, if followed correctly, is guaranteed to give you the answer to the exercise. Algorithms are important in mathematics and our instruction must develop them but the process of carrying out an algorithm, even a complicated one, is not problem solving. The process of creating an algorithm, however, and generalizing it to a specific set of applications can be problem solving. Thus problem solving can be incorporated into the curriculum by having students create their own algorithms. Research involving this approach is currently more prevalent at the elementary level within the context of constructivist theories.

Synthesis - Home - Michigan State University

In short, it is perhaps better to think of modal synthesis not as a frequency domain method, but rather a numerical method for a linear problem which has been diagonalized (to borrow a term from state space analysis []).