AB - A library of thiazolidinedione-fatty acid hybrid molecules was designed to probe the relationship between natural and synthetic PPAR ligands. Solid-phase synthesis of the library led to the identification of several high affinity PPARYγ ligands.
Novel thiazolidinedione analogues as 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) inhibitors were synthesized. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 exhibited IC50 of 25, 8, and 19 nM, respectively. They also significantly increased levels of PGE2 in A549 cells. To assess the influence of 15-PGDH inhibitor on cochlear blood flow (CBF), 2 was applied intravenously to guinea pigs. It increased their CBFs. Scratch wounds were also analyzed in confluent monolayers of HaCaT cells. Cells exposed to 4 showed significantly improved wound healing with respect to a control.
SYNTHESIS OF 2,4-THIAZOLIDINEDIONE-2-AZINES …
Pioglitazone (5-(4-(2-(5-ethyl-2-pyridyl)ethoxy)benzyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2) is a prototypical antidiabetic thiazolidinedione that had been evaluated for possible clinical development. Metabolites 6−9 have been identified after dosing of rats and dogs. Ketone 10 has not yet been identified as a metabolite but has been added to the list as a putative metabolite by analogy to alcohol 6 and ketone 7. We have developed improved syntheses of pioglitazone (2) metabolites 6−9 and the putative metabolite ketone 10. These entities have been compared in the KKAy mouse model of human type-II diabetes to pioglitazone (2). Ketone 10 has proven to be the most potent of these thiazolidinediones in this assay. When 6−10 were compared in the 3T3-L1 cell line to 2, for their ability to augment insulin-stimulated lipogenesis, 10 was again the most potent compound with 6, 7, and 9 roughly equivalent to 2. These data suggest that metabolites 6, 7, and 9 are likely to contribute to the pharmacological activity of pioglitazone (2), as had been previously reported for ciglitazone (1).