Synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of trifluoroethoxy-coated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad 2 has been described. While nonfluorinated phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad 1 showed an efficient property of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer, dyad 2, regardless of its covalently linked dyad system, appears not to show any electronic communication between fullerene and phthalocyanine. This observation is presumably due to the strong electron withdrawing nature of 12 trifluoroethoxy groups; fluorine leads phthalocyanine to become an acceptor whose electronic accepting property is equivalent to that of fullerene. This is a unique example that fluorine can terminate electronic communication in the covalently fullerene-phthalocyanine dyad system.
Synthetic organic pigments can also take on a variety of crystal modifications (especially in the phthalocyanines and quinacridones), and these can have very different color and lightfastness characteristics, although all are grouped under the same color index name.
Low-temperature synthesis of phthalocyanine and its …
As an artist, your major concern is to understand the average lightfastness and generic handling attributes of these pigments across different manufacturers different pigment hues (chemical variations) that is, to see paints as rather than as For example, both the blue and green and the orange to magenta are among the most transparent synthetic organic pigments available, although they can be quite staining; the phthalocyanines are also among the most lightfast. In contrast, cool and the warm are typically opaque and heavily staining too. (Note that lightfastness is strongly affected by the specific molecular form of a dye, by the finishing and laking process in manufacture, and by the particle size of the pigment: the average lightfastness ratings may lump together specific pigments with excellent or poor lightfastness, especially in large pigment families.) The following table presents the average pigment attributes for the most important synthetic organic pigments, based on all paint ratings in the .
Sigma-Aldrich Online Catalog Product List: Phthalocyanines ..
AB - A new two-dimensional cobalt based phthalocyanine covalent organic framework (CoPc-BPDA COF) has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. CoPc-BPDA COF exhibits a high surface area (SBET = 1087 m2 g-1), and it can store up to 1.2 wt% of hydrogen at 77 K and 1 bar.
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The structure of alpha phthalocyanine blue (PB15:3) is representative: four carbon rings linked into a flat plate by carbon and nitrogen; the metal atom (in this case, copper) bonds to two of the four inner nitrogen atoms. The green shades, which are chemically less stable, form by replacing 15 of the hydrogen atoms on the outer carbon rings with chlorine (PG7) or chlorine and bromine (PG36) atoms. The individual dye plates can form chains or polymers by linking the copper atoms to each other through intermediate oxygen atoms; these form the pigment particles. Phthalo blues and greens have been available in artists' paints since the 1950's, but have only recently gained wide use among watercolorists. (The strongly staining character of these early phthalo blue paints was discouraging.) The colors used in artists' paints range in hue from a reddish blue ( or ) to greenish blue (), cyan (), turquoise (), bluish green (), and yellowish green (PG13, ); only the metal free form (PB16, a dull greenish blue) is a true synthetic organic pigment. All shades (but especially the greens) increase in chroma and tinting strength as average goes below 0.15µm, which is achieved by finishing with acids or mechanical grinding. Phthalocyanines are indispensable pigments in the green part of the color circle: PG7 or PG36 are base ingredients for a wide range of mixtures. The natural scarcity of blue and green pigments is illustrated by the fact that phthalo blue is the most important blue pigment discovered since cobalt blue (1804) or ultramarine blue (1828); phthalo green is the most important green pigment since emerald green (1814) or viridian (1838).
PHTHALOCYANINE GREEN G (C.I. PIGMENT GREEN 7)
Thesynthesis of zinc(II) phthalocyanine 5 and zinc(II) phthalocyaninepolymer 6 by cyclotetramerization of corresponding phthalonitrilederivative were accomplished in the presence ofZn(CH3CO2)2 in a Schlenk tubecontaining quinoline under nitrogen atmosphere.
handprint : synthetic organic pigments
The authoritative source on synthetic organic pigments is Industrial organic pigments by Willy Herbst and Klaus Hunger (Wiley, 1997), billed as "everything there is to know about organic pigments." A summary of the same information (by the same authors) is available in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (Wiley, 2000), available at any good chemistry library. (Phthalocyanine pigments are treated in a separate chapter; Ullmann's also has a chapter on "Artists' Colors.") Historical pigment information for natural organic pigments is scattered across several sources. An excellent starting point is the four volume Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics edited by Robert Feller (v.1), Roy Ashok (v.2), Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (v.3) and Barbara Berrie (v.4) (Oxford University Press, 1994-2001). You may also want to check out this interesting web site on .