T1 - Synthesis of photoactivatable 1,2-O-diacyl-sn-glycerol derivatives of 1-L-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) and 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdInsP3)
Citicoline also appears to increase phosphatidylcholine synthesis – an essential composite of cell repair and integrity. Recent literature reveals that choline and uridine stimulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis upon citicoline oral intake.
"Synthesis of phosphatidyl peptides I
Alternatively, the phosphatidic acid can serve as the starting point for membrane phospholipid synthesis along one of several routes.
One pathway of phosphoglyceride synthesis begins with the activation of phosphatidate with CTP to form CDP diacylglycerol, a process thermodynamically driven by pyrophosphate cleavage.
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Citocoline has a several modes of actions which lead to an array of beneficial therapeutic effects on cognitive functioning. One of its most prominent mechanisms includes its effect on the increase of phosphatidylcholine synthesis during cerebral ischemia. After ischemia and stroke, the ability of the brain to synthesize phospholipids is negatively affected. However, citicoline is able to increase cytidine and choline levels. It is important to note that cytidine and choline are the building blocks for neuron restoration integrity.
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* An emulsifier that is also being used to break down fat cells in new liposuction treatments
Phosphatidylcholine is a member of the class of phospholipids, and is created by isolating distinct components from egg yolks and natural soy beans (). It is used as a skin conditioning agent, emulsifier and surfactant in beauty products and cosmetics, although it also being used and tested as an ingredient in liposuction formulas and alternatives because of its ability to break down fat cells, including in .
Phosphatidylcholine is a unique phosopholipid because of its structure. It has a choline head and a string of essential fatty acid chains that make up a tail; these characteristics allow Phosphatidylcholine to assist in communication and repair of cell membranes throughout the body, including within the skin. According to , "Choline is used in the synthesis structural components of all human cell membranes. Choline is used to make the cell signaling molecules, platelet activating factor (PAF) and sphingophosphorylcholine." The essential fatty acids contained within Phosphatidylcholine assist in manufacturing and repairing cell membranes, and "Omega-3s are used in the formation of cell walls, making them supple and flexible."
Although Phosphatidylcholine has been used as an ingested supplement, it is also included as an ingredient in topical skin creams, and can create smoother skin, increase skin's moisture level, condition skin and hair, support skin regeneration, and supply both choline and linoleic acid.
A study was also done in 1999 on the use of Phosphatidylcholine from vegetable lecithine as a treatment for acne. Due to the levels fo linoleic acid, results showed a 60% decrease in comedones and a 70% decrease in efflorescences after 28 days ().
Safety Measures/Side Effects:
The finds Phosphatidylcholine to be a low hazard with a 0 hazard rating, and only notes data gaps as a concern. However, according to , it penetrates skin easily and can also increase the penetrability of other products; Phosphatidylcholine should be used with caution when an ingredient in formulas that contain other questionable or toxic ingredients.
Very few studies exist that note any adverse side effects or warnings regarding its use as a liposuction treatment. It is an approved drug used in Germany for treating blocked blood vessels, but it has not been approved by the FDA for use in cosmetic surgery.
Recommended Products w/ Phosphatidylcholine:
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Based on this concept, we hypothesize that conjugation of phosphatidyl and sugar moiety may integrate the function of PC as building block for liposome and the function of protectants as physical stability enhancer into phosphatidyl saccharides. In this work, we had developed a facile approach to conjugate mono-, di- and tri-saccharides to phosphatidyl group through phospholipase D mediated transphosphatidylation in a biphasic reaction system and characterized phosphatidyl saccharide-based liposomes systemically with PC-liposomes as a comparison control. The synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides were found to be capable of forming nanoliposomes with enhanced physical stability against fusion and aggregation following storage, dehydration and rehydration procedures.