McLain, K. A.; Miller, K. A.; Collins, W. R. Introducing Organic Chemistry Students to Natural Product Isolation Using Steam Distillation and Liquid Phase Extraction of Thymol, Camphor, and Citral, Monoterpenes Sharing a Unified Biosynthetic Precursor. J. Chem. Educ. 2015, 92 (7), 1226-1228.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 () is a thermo-sensitive ion channel expressed in
skin keratinocytes and in a variety of neural cells. is a member of thermo-TRPs, and a
structural homologue of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It is heat-sensitive but capsaicin-insensitive. It is activated by warmth as well as monoterpenoids including camphor, menthol, dihydrocarveol and 1,8-cineol. Recently, it has been proposed that voltage, temperature and chemical cues act through independent mechanisms.
is predominantly expressed in human keratinocytes. In humans it is co-expressed with in skin, tongue, dorsal root ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, spinal cord and brain. is implicated in skin sensitization and hyperalgesia in inflamed tissues and shows increased expression in the case of peripheral nerve injury.
Camphor is known to produce a warm sensation (Green, 1990), consistent with the thermal activation range of However, repeated camphor applications sensitized apparently contradicting its analgesic role
In fact prolonged exposure (5-15 minutes) of monoterpenoids results in agonist-specific desensitization of
It was observed Ca2+independent desensitization of channels during prolonged incubation with camphor, 1,8-cineol, mentol.
While the bicyclic monoterpenoids (camphor or 1,8-cineol) induce both acute desensitization and tachyphylaxis,
monocyclic monoterpenoids (dihydrocarveol or menthol) preferentially induce only tachyphylaxis.
Fanning 1 Synthesis of Camphor by the Oxidation of Borneol
Camphor is used in the preparation of mothballs. It acts as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, and an ingredient for fireworks and explosive munitions. It is useful in the treatment of sprains, swellings and inflammation. It is also used to synthesize carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition process of camphor.
Reduction of Camphor to Borneol and Isoborneol - …
Camphor is a waxy, white or transparent solidwith a strong, aromatic odor. It is a with the 1016. It is found in wood of thecamphor laurel (), a large tree found inAsia (particularly in and ) and also of , a giant of the Bornean forests. It also occurs insome other related trees in the laurel family, notably . It can also be synthetically produced fromoil of . Itis used for its scent, as an ingredient in cooking (mainly inIndia), as an , in religious ceremoniesand for medicinal purposes. A major source of camphor in Asia is .