The whole process of producing ammonia from methane is summarized in Figure 5. If coal or naphtha is the feedstock, extra processes are needed. Naphtha is converted into methane and oxides of carbon before going into the primary reformer and thence to the shift reaction. Coal is also converted into hydrogen and carbon oxides and this mixture then undergoes the shift reaction.
In the mid-1980s, the annual production rate for ammonia was about 16 million tons. About 25% of this went directly for fertiliser, and the rest was used to make (and from there into explosives), dyes, pharmaceuticals and cleaning agents. It has a relatively high heat of vaporisation, and so some ammonia is used as the heat-exchanger gas in large refrigeration units (rather than the ozone-destroying ). With all of these important applications, it is no surprise that more molecules of ammonia are produced each year than any other industrial chemical.
b) the synthesis of ammonia (the Haber Process)
The raw material used to generate the synthesis gas is also different today: in the first few decades of the Haber-Bosch process, a large number of employees prepared a bed of glowing coke and passed steam over it. Today, ammonia plants use natural gas as a feedstock and energy source, which also makes up the lion's share of the production costs. At Ludwigshafen site, the ammonia production is the second largest natural gas consumer after the company's own power generating plants. As in the early days, the necessary nitrogen is obtained from the air supply and, for a change, costs nothing at all.
the ammonium nitrate obtained from the reaction of ..
An increasing amount of ammonia, although still small compared with other uses, is used as a concentrated solution in combating the discharge of nitrogen oxides from power stations.
Synthesis of Urea from Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide
"Even today, the industrial production of ammonia is still operating at the limits of the possible. The challenges for the material and technology of the production plant are enormous under these high pressure synthesis conditions," explains Dr. Jürgen Korkhaus, Head of Materials Engineering, comparing present with past practice. "Even minor variations in the process can subject the materials to immense stresses. The apparatus therefore has to be designed and constructed with extreme care." The reactor of the newer ammonia production plant in which the synthesis gas mixture reacts over a catalyst bed at above 400 degrees Celsius and more than 150 bar pressure to produce ammonia, has a 15 centimeter thick wall of high-strength steel. Its advanced alloy resists the pressurized hydrogen, making the legendary casing unnecessary today.
Ceric ammonium nitrate - Wikipedia
Biologically, ammonia is a toxic waste-product of the breakdown of some amino acids, which it why it is converted to in the liver and then excreted in the urine. Once outside of the body, microbial action decomposes the urea back to ammonia, giving lavatories their familiar, unwelcome odour. Over-ripe Camembert or Brie also smell of ammonia, because it is formed as the nitrogen-containing proteins in the cheese decompose. But ammonia is also a useful fertiliser, since the nitrogen atom is in a much more reactive form than when in molecular , and so plants can absorb it readily and incorporate it into their own amino acids. Ammonia is also important as the precursor to a whole range of organic , such as amino acids and proteins.
Ammonium nitrate solution synthesis and ..
Fritz Haber filed a German patent in 1908 for the synthesis of ammonia for which he won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918. It was a truly breakthrough invention; Haber discovered how ammonia, a chemically reactive, highly usable form of nitrogen, could be synthesized.1 Naturally nitrogen-rich soil is prime agricultural land due to its high productivity, but the nitrogen is depleted with each harvest, lowering the yield of farmlands year after year. A means of restoring nitrogen to soil would lead to a continuous, bountiful crop. Our atmosphere is 78 percent nitrogen, but it exists in a chemically and biologically unusable form. Thanks to Haber’s discovery cheap nitrogen became readily-available and easily usable as a fertilizer. Ammonia synthesis exponentially increased harvests and will continue to do so for years to come. His invention is credited with saving millions of lives and will probably save billions more.