11. A Survey of Classic Synthesis Techniques in Csound

Sounds are pressure waves which travel through air, or another medium, to our ears. Unlike waves in the ocean, which move up and down, pressure waves move forward and back. These waves move our ear drums in and out, and we experience this as sound. Sound synthesis is the art of creating signals that, when turned into sound waves by a speaker, people find interesting. During the course of this article we'll explore a number of devices that create and modify signals used to synthesize sound.

13. Granular Synthesis in Csound

Synthesis provides a means of constructing timbres to emulate existing instruments and create new sounds. There are two approaches to synthesising these timbres


14. FOF and FOG Synthesis in Csound

AudioMulch is a program for real-time sound synthesis, music composition and audio processing.

Additive synthesis can still be an exciting way of producing sounds. The nowadays computational power and programming structures open the way for new discoveries and ideas. The later examples were intended to show some of these potentials of additive synthesis in Csound.


and sound synthesis, intended for use with CLM

There are some problems with our synthesizer design—not the least of which is that because we have no way of controlling the volume of the oscillator, our instrument is always making sound! In order to fix this problem, we need to add a module called a Voltage Controlled Amplifier, or VCA. The function of a VCA is to raise or lower the volume, often called or , of a signal. Essentially, a VCA is a volume knob. Oscillators and other sound generating modules are always making sound, and VCAs are what keep the level down when you're not playing.

Csound Granular Synthesis opcode Example

In the next example we will use additive synthesis to make a kind of a wobble bass. It starts as a bass, then evolve to something else, and then ends as a bass again. We will first generate all the inharmonic partials with a loop. Ordinary partials are arithmetic, we add the same value to one partial to get to the next. In this example we will instead use geometric partials, we will multiplicate one partial with a certain number (kfreqmult) to get the next partial frequency. This number is not constant, but is generated by a sine oscilator. This is frequency modulation. Then some randomness is added to make a more interesting sound, and chorus effect to make the sound more "fat". grow exponentially.

The Csound Book: Perspectives in Software Synthesis, …

This instrument can easily be transformed to be played via a midi keyboard. The next example connects the number of synthesized partials with the midi velocity. So if you play softly, the sound will have fewer partials than if a key is struck with force.

Debian Multimedia Sound synthesis packages

Created in 1985 by Barry Vercoe, Csound is one of the most widely used software sound synthesis systems. Because it is so powerful, mastering Csound can take a good deal of time and effort. But this long-awaited guide will dramatically straighten the learning curve and enable musicians to take advantage of this rich computer technology available for creating music.

Written by the world's leading educators, programmers, sound designers, and composers, this comprehensive guide covers both the basics of Csound and the theoretical and musical concepts necessary to use the program effectively. The thirty-two tutorial chapters cover: additive, subtractive, FM, AM, FOF, granular, wavetable, waveguide, vector, LA, and other hybrid methods; analysis and resynthesis using ADSYN, LP, and the Phase Vocoder; sample processing; mathematical and physical modeling; and digital signal processing, including room simulation and 3D modeling.

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