Synthesis and Characterization of All Renewable …

Agriculture, Department of, 272, 483, 29, 220, 211–218, 250, 256AIDS, 170, 194air quality (clean fuels). ethanolL-alanine, 321, 507 genome, 507alcohol beverages, 38, 471 cytoplasmic membranes, effect on, 468 as fuel, 432, 458–459 fusel oils, 466 production of, 34, 453alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH), 133–134, 138aldosterone, 402alfalfa, 207algae, 492alkali extraction, 433–434alkaliphiles, 406alkylating agents, 326alkylbenzene sulfonates, 497–498alkylmercury, 534allergenicity, 224allergy, 183, 402allograft rejection, 329alternation regime (resistance prevention), 249–250AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal), 38amikacin, 350, 351, 367, 383amino acids biosynthesis regulation, 310 essential, 308 -glutamate, 301–308 non-glutamate, 308–320 production of, 34 synthesis of, 150–151 synthesis with enzymes, 320–3227-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADOCA), 377-aminoethylcysteine, 317aminoglycosides (aminocyclitols) overview, 336, 339–342 antibiotic resistance and, 383 apramycin/fortimicin A, 348 hygromycin B, 351 kanamycin, 343 kasugamycin, 352 mutasynthesis, 349 for non-medical purposes, 351 , 216 resistance to, 349–351 streptomycin ( streptomycin) synthetic, 344, 3486-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 84ammonia (ruminal byproducts), 63ammonium salts, 205amoxycillin, 356, 366amphibian gonadal development, 521ampicillin, 98, 99, 356, 334Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox), 495anaerobic biodegradation of organic compounds, 523–527anaerobic respiration, 9Anammox (anaerobic ammonia oxidation), 495Anastas, Paul: , 81anemia, sickle-cell, 197–198angiosperms, 437animal cells (mitochondrial ancestors), 29animals, rabies eradication in, 187anoxygenic photosynthesis, 9ansamycins, 334anthracyclines, 325, 374anthrax, 32antibacterial agents, 330–337 antibiotic resistance overview, 382–384 biochemical mechanisms, 384–388 in GM plants, 261 gram-negative bacteria, 4 plasmid coding for, 18 preventing, 389–393 resistant genes, 128, 152, 388–389antibiotics aminoglycosides; overview, 324–325 economic value of, 352 fungi as source, 1 as genetic markers, 98 genomics and cloning, 370–378 penicillin, 39, 84 physiology of production, 378–382 research goals, 338, 392–393 as resistance markers, 98, 104, 112 as secondary metabolites, 48–50, 378 from streptomycetes, 34 yeast insensitivity, 40antibodies for clone identification, 110 in human immune response, 179–180antifungal agents, 337antigen-binding sites, 179antigen-presenting cells (APC), 181–182antigens, 10, 172, 184–186antimetabolites, 326antitumor agents, 3256-APA (6-aminopenicillanic acid), 84APC (antigen-presenting cells), 181–182apple juice, 471apramycin, 348aquatic environments aquaculture, antibiotics use in, 391 bioreporters in, 74 nitrogen impact, 209 wastewater impact, 67–68, 490–491 water pollution, 459, 470, 508–513, 411, 149, 217, 291, 292arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), 38archaea overview, 3 habitats of, 1 hyperthermophilic, 21–23 nitrogen fixation, 206 phyla, 13 versatility of, 26ARG3 (ornithine carbamoyltransferase) gene, 138arginine, 138Army Natick Laboratories (U.S.), 462arthritis, 401arthropods, 50–51artificial freshwater, 510–513aryloxyphenoxypropionic acid-based herbicides, 405ascocarpAscomycetes, 38, 443ascus, 36asexual reproductionaspartame, 320–322aspartate, 317, 320–322, 39, 327, 330, 142, 299–301, 401, 418, 422–423, 164asperlicin, 330atherosclerosis, 51–53atom economy, 81atorvastatin (Lipitor), 327ATP (adenosine triphosphate), 7–9, 464atrazine, 521attenuation, 310AUG initiation codon, 135, 139Augmentin, 366autoimmune diseases, 197–198auxin, 213auxotrophs (or auxotrophic mutants), 6, 302, 303, 306, 312avermectins, 48–51, 373Avery, Oswald T., 91avoparcin, 391Avr gene, 227azithromycin, 333azlocillin, 357Azoarcus, 524, 208, 206

Synthesis and biodegradation of copolyesters from citric acid and glycerol.

Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amide)s derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, ..

Synthesis of levulinic acid–glycerol ketal–ester …

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is a chemical compound that can be obtained from several bioprocess cultivation techniques facilitated by natural and/or genetically engineered microbes []. 1,3-PD is produced in nature by bioconversion of glycerol but also the development of recombinant strains makes feasible its production from sugars like glucose. 1,3-PD has gained interest as a raw material for biodegradable polyesters due also to the presence of odd number of methylene units. Homopolyesters and copolyesters constituted by 1,3-PD and carboxylic acids can be easily synthesized by two-step polycondensation in the bulk at high temperature and under reduced pressure [].