WP5: Synthesis of research results and policy analysis

Mixed methods syntheses
Increasingly syntheses consider both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Within the context of reviews of effectiveness, Noyes and colleagues identified four contributions of synthesizing qualitative research in a quantitative review:(66)
i. Informing reviews by using evidence from qualitative research to help define and refine the review question.
ii. Enhancing reviews by synthesizing evidence from qualitative research identified whilst looking for evidence of effectiveness.
iii. Extending reviews by undertaking a synthesis specifically of evidence from qualitative studies to address questions related to effectiveness.
iv. Supplementing reviews by synthesizing qualitative evidence to address questions on aspects other than effectiveness.

“Network Meta-Analysis of Individual and Aggregate Level Data.” Research Synthesis Methods 3, no.

Knowledge users are decision makers 'who make decisions about, or influence, health policies or practices'; note that 'Decision makers can be practitioners, educators, health care administrators, elected officials and individuals within the media, health charities, patient user groups or the private sector'.(81) There are a variety of ways that knowledge users can interact with synthesis teams as adjunct input into a researcher led exercise, as co-producer throughout the synthesis process or as the prime drivers of the synthesis process.(97)


Synthesizing Your Research Findings - Writing Commons

Experienced research synthesists will find lucid discussions of complex problems.

N2 - In this paper, we describe a recent research results about how to generate an avatar's face on a real-time process exactly copying a real person's face. It is very important for synthesis of a real avatar to duplicate emotion and impression precisely included in original face image and voice. Face fitting tool from multi-angle camera images is introduced to make a real 3D face model with real texture and geometry very close to the original. When avatar is speaking something, voice signal is very essential to decide a mouth shape feature. So real-time mouth shape control mechanism is proposed by conversion from speech parameters to lip shape parameters using multilayered neural network. For dynamic modeling of facial expression, muscle structure constraint is introduced to generate a facial expression naturally with a few parameters. We also tried to get muscle parameters automatically to decide an expression from local motion vector on face calculated by optical flow in video sequence. Finally an approach that enables the modeling emotions appearing on faces. A system with this approach helps to analyze, synthesize and code face images at the emotional level.


BIASES IN THE INTERPRETATION AND USE OF RESEARCH RESULTS

Analysis1 and synthesis1cannot replace analysis2 and synthesis2.[]Differences in formal and semantic aspects of ordinary and chemicallanguage also explain the difference between the word »screwdriver«and the formula »NaCl«.

Meta-analysis: An approach to the synthesis of research results

Technical expertise is required to develop search strategies for major databases, hand search key journals (when appropriate), screen search results, develop data abstraction forms, appraise the quality of primary studies, and statistically pool data (when appropriate). Synthesis teams should likely include information scientists and experienced synthesis researchers preferably with prior experience of the proposed synthesis method (whether quantitative or qualitative).

Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation of ..

Reflections on synthesis methods
What is clear from the above discussion is that we are currently in a period of rapid conceptual and methodological development of synthesis methods for both quantitative and qualitative research. While many of the methodological issues (but certainly not all) for systematic reviews of effectiveness questions have been worked through, this is not the case for other syntheses addressing different questions and types of evidence. As a result, teams undertaking these syntheses often have to consider and acknowledge the limits of our current methodological understanding of how to best conduct syntheses and plan their synthesis accordingly.