Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis | Boundless Biology

At a chemical level, there are two main types ofbacterial toxins,lipopolysaccharides,which are associated with the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, andproteins,which are released from bacterial cells and may act at tissue sitesremovedfrom the site of bacterial growth. The cell-associated toxinsare referred to as endotoxinsand the extracellulardiffusible toxins are referred to as exotoxins.

The nucleolus and ribosomes form part of the proteinsynthesizing machinery of the cell

The increase in enzyme activity in cells growing in presence of 30S specific antibiotics was significant and this could only be due to the enzyme molecules which took some time to fold to active form after their synthesis was stopped with antibiotics.

Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis

Red blood cells of different sizes because of the deficiency of B vitamins, folic acid and iron.

coli at a low temperature (~ 22° C) when cloned genes are expressed so that the rate of protein synthesis remains lower than what would produce inclusion bodies.

Protein Synthesis as the Site of Antimicrobic Action

Certain nascent peptide chains are able to regulate ribosome functionwhile they are still being synthesized, i.e., when they are still insidethe ribosomal exit tunnel. One of the classical examples is TnaC, aleader peptide of the tryptophanase operon in . At highconcentrations of tryptophan, TnaC stalls the ribosome, inhibitingtermination of its synthesis. Through an intricate gene regulatorymechanism, stalling ultimately leads to the expression of genesresponsible for degrading tryptophan.

on polypeptide synthesis in cell-free bacterial ..

Due to its sheer size and complexity, the ribosome presents anoutstanding challenge for traditional methods for high-resolutionstructure determination such as X-ray crystallography and nuclearmagnetic resonance spectroscopy. X-ray crystallographers have conquered thischallenge: today, the Protein Data Bank has several structures of entireribosomes from different laboratories. However, these structures remaindifficult to obtain for factor-bound ribosomes, which are key tounderstand the dynamics of translation.

Protein synthesis is the end ..

Due to great advances in the structural resolution of the ribosome, animpressive feat given its large size, the system is considered one ofthe hottest focal areas in molecular cell biology today. During theprocess of translation, the ribosome undergoes several conformationalchanges and binds to different factors that catalyze specificreactions. As detailed below, techniques to determine structure of theribosome can only image snapshots of the ribosome, often at medium tolow resolution. Atomic details of the interactions between the factorsand the ribosome, along with a dynamic description of the conformationalchanges of the ribosome itself, are crucial to understanding itsfunction.

Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible - …

The structure and function of the ribosome are fascinatinglycomplex. Two-thirds of the ribosome consist of ribosomal RNA (rRNA),while over 50 ribosomal proteins make up the rest. The geneticinformation is delivered to the ribosome by a messenger RNA(mRNA). Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are adapter molecules, each equipped withan anticodon to match the codons in the mRNA, and charged with an aminoacid that corresponds to the anticodon as dictated by the geneticcode. The ribosome contains three tRNA-binding sites: A, P, and E (seeelongation cycle box, or watch a ). In addition to mRNA and tRNAs, the ribosomeinteracts with protein factors such as the elongation factors Tu (EF-Tu)and G (EF-G), that are important players in the so-called elongationcycle. The elongation cycle results in the addition of an amino acid tothe nascent peptide chain, and consists of three main steps. In thedecoding step, a ternary complex comprised of an aminoacyl-tRNA(aa-tRNA), EF-Tu, and GTP binds to the ribosome,leading to the recognition of the codon by the anticodon. The followingstep is the peptidyl transfer. Here the peptide chain bound to theP-site tRNA is covalently linked to the amino acid bound to the A-sitetRNA. In the translocation step, the position of the mRNA/tRNA complexshifts by one codon, accompanied by a ratchet-like motion of theribosomal subunits.