for the biological control of movement ..

... together tosdetermine the overall musculoskeletal behavior, severalshypothetical mechanisms for arm movement control have beensproposed as an explanation for posture maintenance andsmovement control =-=[1]-=-.sHowever, the object of this paper is to study thesadaption/changing of motor control under unexpectedsperturbation. The results support the hypothesis that the brainssends as a motor command only an...

Servo hypotheses for the biological control

1. Muscle Physiology (structure of skeletal muscles, sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, simple muscle mechanics, force-length and force-velocity relationships)
2. Motor units and electromyography (fast and slow motor units, Henneman principle, functional roles of motor units, recording and processing of electromyographic signals)
3. Spinal control of movement (monosynaptic and polysnaptic reflexes)
4. Voluntary control of a single muscle (feedforward and feedback control, servo control, servo hypothesis, equilibrium point hypothesis)
5. Voluntary control of single joint movements (isotonic movements and isometric contractions, kinematic and EMG profiles of single joint movements, dual-strategy hypothesis)
6. Cortical and subcortical control (roles of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum in motor control, activity in these structures before and during movement assessed by means of single cell recordings, neuroanatomical tracing, neuroimaging methods)
7. Ascending and Descending Pathways (Dorsal column pathway, spinocervical, spintothalamic, spinocerebellar, spinoreticular, pyramidal, rubrospinal, vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts)
8. Control and coordination of multijoint movements (merging neurophysiology with control, force control hypothesis, generalized motor programs, internal models, equilibrium point control)


Servo hypotheses for the biological control of movement.

Servo Hypothesis for the biological control of ..

19.2 Force?Control Approach19.3 Engrams and the Generalized Motor Program19.4 Internal Models19.5 Equilibrium Point Hypothesis19.6 Subtleties of the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis19.7 Dynamic Systems ApproachChapter 20 Motor Synergies 20.1 Motor Redundancy 20.2 Optimization Approaches20.3 Principle of Abundance20.4 Structural Units and Synergies20.5 Studies of Motor Synergies: Principal Component Analysis20.6 Uncontrolled Manifold HypothesisChapter 21 Postural Control21.1 Vertical Posture21.2 Postural Sway21.3 Vestibular System21.4 Vision and Postural Control21.5 Proprioception and Postural Control21.6 Anticipatory Postural Adjustments21.7 Corrective Postural Reactions21.8 Postural SynergiesChapter 22 Locomotion22.1 Two Approaches to Locomotion22.2 Central Pattern Generators22.3 Locomotor Centers22.4 Spinal Locomotion22.5 Spinal Control of Locomotion in Humans22.6 Gait Patterns22.7 Dynamic Pattern Generation22.8 Step Initiation22.9 Corrective Stumbling ReactionChapter 23 Multijoint Movement23.1 Targeted Reaching Movements23.2 Controlling Natural Reaching Movements23.3 Interjoint Reflexes23.4 Spinal Mechanisms of Multijoint Coordination23.5 Supraspinal Mechanisms23.6 Equilibrium Trajectory Hypothesis23.7 What Is Controlled During Multijoint Movements?