Emotionally Driven Hypothesis The ways in which we attempt to determine the history of early man say much more about who we are today, and who we will be tomorrow, and who we want to be today, and who we want to be tomorrow, than they do about who we were in the past.
Given the above sortof information on the likely range for the actual mean ofeach sample, the questionbasically reduces to whether the likely ranges overlap (in which case the meanscould be the same: in the overlap of the intervals, and we may not rejectthe null hypothesis) or if they do not overlap (in which case we must rejectthe null hypothesis: the difference is most likely not due to chance).
This is just a brief example of scientific method.
One class of chemical reactions are called Oxidation/Reduction reactions. The prototypical oxidation reaction is one in which an element combines with oxygen; hence the name. More generally, oxidation reactions occur whenever an element or compounds loses electrons. Reduction reactions are required to separate metals from their ores and are found in such everyday products as rust removers such as Iron Out. When a reaction is classified as a reduction it means that the chemical involved has gained electrons. Oxidation reactions are always accompanied by reduction reactions. The formation of rust is classified as an oxidation reaction: iron loses electrons and oxygen gains electrons.
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Each group of students will be responsible fordeveloping a hypothesis and designing a "fair test" to determine howand why different conditions affect the corrosion of iron.
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The exchange of electrons between reagents in this type of reaction is facilitated by a medium which can carry electrons. For example, batteries store potential chemical energy and the reaction can be started by completing a circuit with a wire or device. Batteries are just oxidation/reduction reactions that can be harnessed to provide an electric current. Another way to carry electrons is to carry them indirectly on ions in solution. A simple salt solution is a good carrier of electricity and is therefore a perfect medium for oxidation/reduction reactions. This is the reason that you will use ammonium chloride (the chloride salt of household ammonia, ) in this lab. The salt in the solution facilitates the exchange of electrons between the iron in the steel wool and the oxygen in the air. Without this (a chemist’s name for a solution that carries electricity) the reaction would take far too long. But with the salt solution we can expect all of the iron in the steel wool to rust by the time a week has passed. The advantage of is that it turns directly from a solid to a gas (it sublimes) when heated. This will allow us to remove it from the iron oxide in the final procedure of the lab.
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One such idea is the aquatic ape hypothesis (AAH) which attempts to explain a number of human adaptations with the single explanation of a semi-aquatic ancestor.
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Rust is associated with degradation of iron-based tools and structures. As rust has a much higher volume than the originating mass of iron, its build-up can also cause failure by forcing apart adjacent parts a phenomenon sometimes known as "rust smacking". It was the cause of the collapse of the Mianus river bridge in 1983, when the bearings rusted internally and pushed one corner of the road slab off its support. Three drivers on the roadway at the time died as the slab fell into the river below. The following National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigation showed that a drain in the road had been blocked for road re-surfacing, and had not been unblocked so that runoff water penetrated the support hangers. It was also difficult for maintenance engineers to see the bearings from the inspection walkway. Rust was also an important factor in the Silver Bridge disaster of 1967 in West Virginia, when a steel suspension bridge collapsed in less than a minute, killing 46 drivers and passengers on the bridge at the time.