Cyclic and Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis
Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP
How Glycolysis Works
How NAD+ Works
How the Krebs Cycle Works
Photosynthetic Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
Class II (e.g. coronaviruses, togaviruses.) Many +strandedRNA viruses have subgenomic RNA as part of their cycle. Thiswould allow a certain amount of control. The subgenomic mRNAcannot be recognized by the RNA polymerase. It can be used solelyfor the synthesis of structural proteins etc. A second way to getround the problem is to make a nested set of RNAs. The nested setof RNA is the most efficient form of control. They can controlwhich part of their genome to express.
DNA rolling circle replication - YouTube
Enveloped Viruses - Viral proteins are first associatedwith the nucleic acid to form the nucleocapsid, which is thensurrounded by an envelope. In nucleocapsid formation, theproteins are all synthesized on cytoplasmic polysomes and arerapidly assembled into capsid components. In envelope assembly,virus-specified envelope proteins go directly to the appropriatecell membrane (the plasma membrane, the ER, the Golgi apparatus),displacing host proteins. In contrast, the carbohydrates and thelipids are produced by the host cell. The viral envelope has thelipid constitution of the membrane where its assembly takes place.(eg. the plasma membrane for orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses,the nuclear membrane for herpesviruses) A given virus will differin its lipids and carbohydrates when grown in different cells,with consequent differences in physical, biological, andantigenic properties.
– by rolling circle replication ..
This is an advanced course once the students are familiar with basic synthetic chemistry principles. Reactions of heterocyclic compounds (which form the basic skeleton of natural products) includes imidazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, pyridazines, pyrimidines and pyrazines, terpenes, alkaloids, antibiotics, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleic acids and proteins. This course will also offer biosynthetic pathway of some important natural products.
rolling circle amplification ..
Pol I is involved primarily in DNA repair (including removal and replacement of RNA primers) where destruction of damaged or mis-paired DNA (or RNA primers) and replacement with good DNA are required.
DNA and protein synthesis involves: ..
Review of MOS device operation, combinational and sequential logic design; CMOS logic families including static, dynamic and dual rail logic. Fabrication of MOS transistors, Circuit Layout: Design Rules, Parasitics. Arithmetic blocks (ALUs, FIFOs, counters), memory; data and control path design, Logical Effort. Introduction to hardware description languages (verilog), Analysis and synthesis algorithms including circuit, switch and logic simulation, logic synthesis, layout synthesis and test generation. Chip design examples, Floor-planning, Packaging.
replicated by rolling-circle replication
Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase
Bidirectional DNA Replication
Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes
DNA Replication Fork
Hershey and Chase Experiment
How Nucleotides Are Added in DNA Replication
How Translation Works
mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)
Proofreading Function of DNA Polymerase
Rolling Circle Mechanisms of Replication
Simple Gene Expression
Stages of Transcription
Structural Basis of DNA Replication
not require protein synthesis in donor
Spatial frameworks: Concepts from Geodesy, Earth centered reference frames, Global and local horizontal datums, WGS 84,; Height references: Use of Physical and Geometric principles, Vertical datums and their relations, Ellipsoidal and Orthometric heights; Topographic surface modeling: Grid based models, TINs, Breaklines and Breakpoints, Surface interpolation methods; Photogrammetric data collection using Space borne and Airborne digital systems; Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Concepts, Sensors, Data processing, Quality control; Airborne Lidar: Concepts, Sensors, Data Processing, Quality Control; DEM user applications; Terrain derivatives, Terrain Visualisation; Urban surface representation models, City GML standards; Spatial Data Infrastructure: Concepts and Examples; Examples of practical use of Spatial data Infrastructures.