Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by s called that contain green pigments. In plants, these proteins are held inside s called s, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the . In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip s from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that act as an immediate energy storage means: reduced (NADPH) and (ATP), the "energy currency" of cells.
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In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in s called s. A typical contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is composed of a phospholipid inner membrane, a phospholipid outer membrane, and an intermembrane space. Enclosed by the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids (grana), which are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoids appear as flattened disks. The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and complexes of the photosynthetic system.
Robin Hill (biochemist) - Wikipedia
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Carbon fixation produces the intermediate three-carbon sugar product, which is then converted to the final carbohydrate products. The simple carbon sugars produced by photosynthesis are then used in the forming of other organic compounds, such as the building material , the precursors for and biosynthesis, or as a fuel in . The latter occurs not only in plants but also in s when the energy from plants is passed through a .
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Consulted widely in industry, Calvin became a member of the Board of Directors of the Dow Chemical Company in 1964. He served on many scientific boards for the United States government, including the President's Science Advisory Committee for presidents Kennedy and Johnson. He was president of the American Society of Plant Physiologists in 1963-1964, president of the American Chemical Society in 1971, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London. In 1961 he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on the path of carbon in photosynthesis. The Royal Society awarded him the Davy Medal in 1964 for his pioneering work in chemistry and biology, particularly the photosynthesis studies.
Robin Hill (biochemist) : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
In 1922 he joined the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridgewhere he was directed to research . Hepublished a number of papers on haemoglobin, and in 1926 he beganto work with David Kellin on the containing . In 1932 he commenced work onplant biochemistry, focusing on photosynthesis and the oxygenevolution of , leading to the discovery ofthe 'Hill reaction'.
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Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are able to food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light. However, not all organisms that use light as a source of energy carry out photosynthesis; s use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen. This is called and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. Although there are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in , , and , the overall process is quite similar in these organisms. There are also many varieties of , used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen.