Protein Synthesis (Translation)

David CJ, Chen M, Assanah M, Canoll P andManley JL: HnRNP proteins controlled by c-Myc deregulate pyruvatekinase mRNA splicing in cancer. Nature. 463:364–368. 2010. : :

The main stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.

Step 1- Transcription involves the synthesis of mRNA from template DNA. Think of this step as making a RNA photocopy of a recipe from your DNA cookbook


Is energy (ATP) required for protein synthesis?

RNA polymerase reads the coding strand of the DNA and synthesises RNA that is

An X-ray structure of a bacterium ribosome. The rRNA-molecules are colored orange, the proteins of the small subunit are blue and the proteins of the large subunit are green.


This lesson takes a look at tRNA and its role in protein synthesis

At the other end, there is the specific amino acid which matches the codon.

Thus emerged an image of the most fundamental process of life: the manner in which information flows from DNA to RNA and become enzymes and other proteins.

The Roles of RNA in the Synthesis of Protein

Thus it was possible to map ribosome functionality at the most basic, atomic level.

The small subunit’s “double checking”
A property of the ribosome, that has fascinated scientists for a long time, is that it seldom makes any errors when it translates DNA/RNA-language into protein language.

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Translation - zeroBio

mRNA moves outside the nucleus and is caught by the ribosome, which uses mRNA as a blueprint for producing proteins.

When this became known, scientists quickly deciphered the genetic code with the help of artificial mRNA and ribosomes in test tube experiments.

Protein Synthesis in the Cellular Factory | 03:48

Incidentally, when one starts thinking along these lines, one must consider the unthinkable, i.e., that the length of time that RNA-based proteins actually bestrode the earth might be zero. — François Jacob, 1997

DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis ..

It consists of proteins and RNA molecules (ribosomal RNA, or rRNA).

The genetic code was deciphered in the 1960s
Thus, 100 years after Darwin elaborated his theory of evolution, scientists had identified DNA as the molecule that carries hereditary traits.