As mentioned above, the generation and disappearance of Fmoc based chromophors allows the monitoring of the synthesis. Furthermore, samples may be taken to determine the load of Fmoc peptide. The completion of the deprotection reaction may be checked by cleaving samples and analyzing the obtained peptide.
The other approach is to introduce backbone protecting groups which will prevent the formation of hydrogen bonds. Such protection is made by the introduction of the Hmb group on the αnitrogen . It has been shown that the presence of a Hmb unit every 6-7 residues is sufficient to disrupt the peptide aggregation . The Hmb protected amino acid is introduced under the form of N,O-bis-Fmoc-N-(2hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) derivative, the O-Fmoc protection being cleaved during the following piperidine treatment. At the end of the synthesis the Hmb group is cleaved in the final TFA cleavage.
DailyMed - Search Results for Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
The insulin response from carbs may synergistically amplify protein synthesis in the presence of amino acids. Insulin is also a powerful inhibitor of protein degradation.
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Sixty three nucleotides are required for synthesising the A chain and ninety for the B chain, plus a codon at the end of each chain,signalling the termination of protein synthesis.
Protein Synthesis, Translation (1) - YouTube
To carry this one step further, one can imagine that a similar phenomenon canoccur when coactivators bind to activators. Perhaps different conformationalchanges are similarly induced in the bound protein depending upon type ofprotein-protein interaction. Such conformational changes can then result indifferent ability to modulate transcription.
How Can a Mutation in DNA Affect Protein Synthesis
Latchman (TRENDS in Biochemical Sciences Vol. 26 No.4 April 2001) has pointedout the importance of the DNA binding site itself as playing a key role intranscriptional modulation. The same transcription factor can assume differentconformations as a result if binding to different sites. The conformationalchanges are induced by the DNA-protein interaction, thereby increasing theflexibility of the spectrum of control of transcription, since one protein canact like an entire collection of proteins, each having its own effect(activation, inhibition or no effect).
Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis ..
There are four different nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. The synthesis of a particular protein such as insulin is determined by the sequence in which these bases are repeated (see fig.