Aim.: This paper is a report of a synthesis of evidence on implementation of interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Background.: Evidence on efficacy must be supplemented with evidence on how interventions were implemented in practice and on how that implementation varied across populations and settings. Data sources.: Sixty-one reports were reviewed of studies conducted in the United States of America in the period 2001 to December 2008. Fifty-two reports were included in the final analysis: 37 reporting the effects of interventions and 15 reporting intervention feasibility, acceptability, or fidelity. Review methods.: An adaptation of Pawson's realist synthesis method was used, whereby a provisional explanatory model and associated list of propositions are developed from an initial review of literature. This model is successively refined to the point at which it best explains empirical findings from the reports reviewed. Results.: The final explanatory model suggests that individuals with HIV will be more likely to enrol in interventions that protect their confidentiality, to attend when scheduling is responsive to their needs, and both to attend and continue with an intervention when they develop a strong, one-to-one relationship with the intervener. Participants who have limited prior experience with antiretroviral therapy will be more likely to continue with an intervention than those who are more experienced. Dropout rates are likely to be higher when interventions are integrated into existing delivery systems than when offered as stand-alone interventions. Conclusion.: The explanatory model developed in this study is intended to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers on the points in the implementation chain that require strengthening.
The Age of Realism, generally considered the culmination of the literary synthesis of earlier generations, began around 1850. The writers of that period owed a great debt to four men of the previous generation: the writers Aleksandr Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, and Nikolay Gogol', and the critic Vissarion Belinskiy, each of whom contributed to new standards for language, subject matter, form, and narrative techniques. Pushkin is recognized as the greatest Russian poet, and the critic Belinskiy was the "patron saint" of the influential "social message" writers and critics who followed. Lermontov contributed innovations in both poetic and prose genres. Gogol' is accepted as the originator of modern realistic Russian prose, although much of his work contains strong elements of fantasy. The rich language of Gogol' was much different from the direct, sparse lexicon of Pushkin; each of the two approaches to the language of literary prose was adopted by significant writers of later generations.
RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses | …
When I started my PhD in October 2014, I had barely heard of realism and was much more inclined to do a standard systematic review, having recently worked on two at the University of Exeter. So it was with some trepidation that I started to explore realist synthesis…only to discover that its core principles and approach did seem to suit my research project.
International relations theory - Wikipedia
First, an information specialist should be aware that relevant mechanisms are potentially identifiable in literature outside the scope of the review. Mechanisms are to some extent transferable between different population groups and interventions, so it’s a good tip to broaden the scope of the search. For example, the population group for the realist review I worked on was prisoners near to and after release. However, we also searched for studies on social groups with similar vulnerabilities to the prison population (e.g. people who use illicit substances), which we thought might reveal mechanisms that apply to the prison population, too.
What is Social Constructionism? | Grounded Theory …
Synthesising evidence from qualitative studies
Many innovative approaches are emerging to synthesise evidence from qualitative studies. For example, Noyes and colleagues identify 'Bayesian meta-analysis, critical interpretative synthesis, meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, narrative synthesis, qualitative evidence synthesis drawing on grounded theory and the approaches developed by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) Co-ordinating Centre and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI).(66) Dixon Woods and colleagues also identify thematic analysis, cross case technique, realist synthesis, content analysis, case survey, qualitative comparative analysis and case survey.(67)
Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995
In true realist fashion, I’ll start with a C for Context. The summer school took place in Liverpool, at another C – the recently formed Centre for Advancement of Realist Evaluation and Syntheses (CARES) at the University of Liverpool. The venue was well suited to this sort of event, with a main meeting room (see photo) and several smaller ‘breakout’ rooms, as well as a central courtyard area for lunch and tea breaks.