Photoelectric charge isolation takes place within dimers of these bacteriochlorphyll pigments, resulting in the release of high-energy electrons, the action of bacteriochlorophyll monomers such as bacteriopheophytin, quinone A, and quinone B.

The general  for photosynthesis is therefore:

A measure of the intensity of light (referred to the photometry of light), one lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. This is another area of comparing apples to apples in lights, not just watts.
It is noteworthy that a LUX Reading ONLY reports light intensity to which the HUMAN EYE is most sensitive (green light)

algae; photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; phytoplankton

An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with including a circular , prokaryotic-type , and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center. The suggests that photosynthetic bacteria were acquired (by ) by early cells to form the first cells. Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like , chloroplasts still possess their own DNA, separate from the of their plant host cells and the genes in this chloroplast DNA resemble those in . DNA in chloroplasts codes for proteins such as photosynthetic reaction centers. The proposes that this Co-location is required for Redox Regulation.

“Anoxygenic photosynthesis does not produce as a chemical equation.

The main source of in the is , and its first appearance is sometimes referred to as the . Geological evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis, such as that in , became important during the era around 2 billion years ago. Modern photosynthesis in plants and most photosynthetic prokaryotes is oxygenic. Oxygenic photosynthesis uses water as an electron donor which is to molecular oxygen () in the .

Introduction to the Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria.

PAR is an important and accepted starting point to estimate light energy for our photosynthetic aquarium keeping needs. We measure PAR via µMolm which is a unit of measure (more about measurement later).

The traditional "photosynthetic equation".What is Photosynthesis?

The beginning aquarist is likely to think that if there's enough light to see then it's enough for plants to grow.
However, that's not true. If you want to grow healthy plants, and not just algae, you need enough light for them to use for photosynthesis and create energy.
It used to be that people advised 3-4 watts per gallon as a VERY basic principle. But, due to modern lighting technology this is now considered an outdated notion (with PAR now more the norm).

In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy.

Early photosynthetic systems, such as those from and and and , are thought to have been anoxygenic, using various molecules as . Green and purple sulfur bacteria are thought to have used and as an electron donor. Green nonsulfur bacteria used various and other . Purple nonsulfur bacteria used a variety of non-specific organic molecules. The use of these molecules is consistent with the geological evidence that the atmosphere was highly at .[citation needed]

There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis:

The efficiency of the latter reaction can be determined by multiplying the efficiency of CO2; anabolism by the efficiency of hydrogen production in photosynthetic bacteria.