The bacterialribosome is the target of over 50% antibiotic drugs, for example, the clinicallyimportant macrolide family, including the widely-prescribed erythromycin (ERY) whichis on the WHO essential medicines list. The antibiotic action of macrolide drugshas been known for over 50 years, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying theeffects of these drugs are still unknown. The increasingly serious problem of bacterialresistance against antibiotic drugs is developing now into a major global concern, becauseno new antibiotic drugs have been developed for nearly 30 years while new strains ofbacteria have evolved to be resistant to existing drugs. To promote novel designs ofthe next generation of antibiotics that are more effective and less resistance-inductive,we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antibiotic action of macrolideERY on bacterial ribosomes. Our results made possible by large-scale molecular dynamicssimulations on the BlueWaters supercomputer showed that the ERY drug takes antibioticeffects by altering the structure of the bacterial ribosome.
The translation of genetic information into proteins is essential forlife. At the core of this process lies the ribosome, a quintessentiallarge (2.5-4.5 MDa) molecular machine responsible for translatinggenetic material into functional proteins. In a growing cell, ribosomescomprise up to half of the net dry weight. Because of its fundamental rolein the cell, 50% of all efforts to develop antibiotics target bacterialribosomes, taking advantage of the structural differences between bacterialand human ribosomes.
Protein Synthesis - Elmhurst College
The majority of the scientific community thought that the proteins were the carriers of hereditary traits, since they are more complex than DNA.
The scientific community was fascinated by the proteins.
Protein Synthesis Steps Summary? - Okela
It is during this translation process, when DNA/RNA language becomes protein language, that life reaches its full complexity.
The body contains tens of thousands of different proteins that control what happens in the body with an astounding precision.
Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis
Ribosome: The ribosome’s job is to hold everything in place, as well as form the bonds between amino acids. All cells have ribosomes. Ribosomes are made of RNA and associated proteins, with a small subunit and a large subunit coming together during translation to catalyze protein synthesis.
Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis ..
Examples of such proteins are: haemoglobin, which transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body; insulin, which controls the sugar level in the blood; antibodies that capture intruding viruses; and keratin, which builds hair and nails.
Ribosomes exist in all cells in all living organisms, from bacteria to human beings.
Protein synthesis takes place in the following steps
ACTGCCAT represents something completely different from GCGTATAG.
Proteins – “a string of amino acid pearls”
At the beginning of the 1940s, the mapping of the cell had advanced to such an extent that scientists knew that hereditary traits were carried by chromosomes.
How would you describe the steps in protein synthesis
At the other end, there is the specific amino acid which matches the codon.
Thus emerged an image of the most fundamental process of life: the manner in which information flows from DNA to RNA and become enzymes and other proteins.