After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.
The resulting aminoacyl-tRNAs (AA-tRNAs) are transported by the elongation factor (EF-Tu in bacteria and EF1A in archaea and eukaryotes) to the ribosome as building blocks for protein synthesis [2,3].
Protein Synthesis | Rna | Translation (Biology)
There are numerous protein factors required for events like the binding to the small ribosomal subunit, binding to the charged initiator tRNA (in eukaryotes: met-tRNA), recognition of the 5' cap, and recognition of the 3' poly-A tail (eukaryotic initiation involves both the 5' and 3' end of the mRNA and its folding).
Protein synthesis | Define Protein synthesis at …
The information required to build resides on the in the form of sequences of , and has the form of triplets of bases called "codons" following the . Once the genetic information describing how to build a is to , it has to be "translated" into the "language" of the protein. The sequence of on the RNA forms a code for the building blocks of the protein. The word "translation" seems particularly appropriate for this process since the information contained in the DNA is translated from the four-character alphabet of the bases to the twenty-character alphabet of the amino acids.
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(Type I and type II synthetases, respectively.) Even if the amino acid is initially attached to the 2' OH, it is the 3' OH form that is used in protein synthesis.* This charged tRNA is now ready to take part in translation.
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The "front" end of the mRNA is referred to as the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and the sequence at the "back" end is called the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR).