The protein synthesis occurs by means of transcrition (in the nucleus: production of RNA with nitrogenous bases that are complementary to one of the ; thus DNA -> RNA) and translation (in polyribosomes and the both located in the cytoplasm: RNA codes -> specific chains of aminoacids, i.e.
Model of a eukaryotic replication fork. Schematic representation of replication fork topology based on known protein–protein interactions and analogy to prokaryotic replication forks. Black lines – template DNA; red lines – newly synthesized DNA and green lines – RNA primers. Looping of the lagging strand template DNA allows the replication machinery to move in the direction of the leading strand while synthesizing the lagging strand in the opposite direction.
required by the cell (although protein synthesis occurs outside of ..
These have a disastrous effect on the resulting protein more often than substitutions do.
Unless these mutations occur in multiples of three, they cause a frameshift mutation.
All the nucleotides downstream of the deletion or insertion will be improperly grouped into codons.
Mutations can occur during DNA replication, DNA repair, or DNA recombination.
These are called .