Protein synthesis: an epic on the ..

That's great news for natural bodybuilders and maybe even greater news for men over 40, the age at which normal growth hormone levels start to decline. The functions of growth hormone include accelerated protein synthesis and positive nitrogen balance.

Protein Synthesis: An Epic on the Cellular Level ..

Synthesis of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) from common building blocks; transport and regulation of synthetic precursors; common intermediates in synthesis of other biomolecules; synthesis of nucleic acid components

(Paul Berg) Protein Synthesis: An Epic on the Cellular Level

Synthesis of macromolecular systems with precise structural and functional control constitutes a fundamental challenge for materials science and engineering. Development of the ability to construct complex bio-macromolecular architectures provides a solution to this challenge. The past few years have witnessed the emergence of a new category of chemistry which can covalently stitch together protein/peptide molecules with high specificity under mild physiological conditions. It has thus led to the concept of genetically encoded click chemistry (GECC). A prototypical GECC, Spy chemistry, enabled the synthesis of precise macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo while exerting precise control over the fundamental properties of these macromolecules including length, sequence, stereochemistry and topology. The same chemistry further led to the creation of diverse biomaterials for a variety of applications. We will continue to enrich and diversify the GECC toolbox through directed evolution and other protein engineering methods. By bridging the two fields, synthetic biology and materials science, the development of a palette of orthogonal GECCs, reminiscent of the epic of fluorescent proteins, will provide us with enormous opportunities for future material design.