DO - 10.1016/S0003-4975(10)61253-2

From 1973 to 1980, 49 patients under 18 years of age survived cardiac valve replacement with Hancock porcine heterografts. Complete follow-up has been obtained on 44 patients (90%) in whom 46 valves were placed. There were 30 boys and 14 girls with an age range of 2 to 18 years (mean 10.0 years). Severe prosthetic valvular dysfunction requiring valve replacement occurred in eight valves in seven patients at 15 to 60 months postoperatively (mean 34.1 months), yielding a calculated replacement rate of 7.1% per patient-year. All eight valves demonstrated severe calcification with stenosis, two valves had significant insufficiency secondary to leaflet disruption, and one valve had a large leaflet perforation. Thirty-one patients with valves in place at 7 to 90 months (mean 38.4 months) are alive, but six have clinical evidence of progressive valvular dysfunction. The mean age at the time of the original Hancock valve placement of the group of patients having undergone replacement of a failed prosthesis together with those with clinical evidence of prosthesis dysfunction was 8.0 years, which is significantly less than that of the remaining group of patients with normally functioning valves (mean 11.2 years, p = 0.043). Actuarial curves demonstrate a predicted replacement-free rate of 87.4% ± 5.9% at 3 years, 82.3% ± 7.5% at 4 years, and 58.5% ± 15.7% at 5 years. On the basis of these data and other reports of early failure in the literature, we have discontinued the routine use of Hancock porcine heterografts for cardiac valve replacement in children in favor of mechanical prostheses.

JO - Annals of Thoracic Surgery

Fungal endocarditis. The vegetations in this image cover the entire ventricular aspect of a bovine bioprosthetic valve as seen from the aortic (A) and ventricular (B) aspects of the bioprosthesis, and result in valvular stenosis. The tissue valve shows splaying of the collagen bundles by invading organisms (C). Note the absence of inflammatory cell reaction. The PAS stain demonstrates yeast forms consistent with Candida (D).

is illustrated here.

T2 - Annals of Thoracic Surgery

JF - Annals of Thoracic Surgery

AB - Normal Doppler-derived echocardiographic data for Carpentier-Edwards Duraflex (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) porcine bioprosthesis function in the mitral position are limited to 2 small series that did not include all Doppler-derived variables. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive Doppler echocardiographic assessment of normal Carpentier-Edwards Duraflex mitral bioprosthesis function in a large number of patients assessed in the early postoperative phase. All of the important Doppler-derived hemodynamic variables reported to date were used. All patients had either a mitral valve prosthesis time velocity integral to left ventricular outflow tract time velocity integral ratio

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N2 - From November, 1973, through June, 1978, 428 operations in 425 patients were performed for replacement of aortic, mitral, or aortic plus mitral valves, utilizing 277 Hancock and 180 Carpentier-Edwards bioprostheses. Actuarially determined survival at 36 months was similar for all three groups and compared favorably with our experience with the Bjork-Shiley prosthesis. Certain patient-related variables influencing late survival were identified by multivariate analysis and included previous operation for congenital heart disease, coronary artery bypass grafting in nonaortic valve replacement, race (black), age at operation, and New York Heart Association Functional Class. A small but definite incidence of thromboembolism occurred in all three groups, again similar to our experience with the Bjork-Shiley prosthesis. Multivariate analysis identified four factors influencing risk of thromboembolism: previous cardiac operation, age, double-valve replacement, and rhythm at discharge. Valve degeneration occurred, primarily in children and young adults. Over the medium term, the porcine bioprosthesis compared favorably with mechanical prostheses in terms of survival, function, and thromboembolism. Certain patient-related variables affecting survival may be modified by earlier surgical intervention.

JO - Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Over the years, many surgical methods have evolved for the treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm in combination with aortic valve regurgitation; however, precise guidelines for optimal surgical techniques for varying presentations have not been defined. We describe the use of a stentless porcine bioprosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle®) in a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic regurgitation. We used the complete root replacement method, and anastomosed a Dacron graft (Hemashield®) between the bioprosthetic valve and the native aorta to replace the distal part of the aneurysm.