The period succeeding the Devonian is called the (c. 359 to 299 mya), for reasons that will become evident. The second attempt of vertebrates to invade land (which is considered to be about a 30-million-year gap). After all mass extinctions, it took millions of years for ecosystems to recover, even tens of millions of years, and markedly different ecosystems and plant/animal assemblages often replaced what existed before the extinction. The Devonian spore-forests were destroyed, and outside of the peat swamps, the tallest trees in the Tournaisian Gap were about as tall as I am, and even in the swamps, the tallest trees were about ten meters tall, as they were before the Hangenberg event.
What is fire? That may seem too-elementary a question, but understanding what it is and where it came from is vitally important for understanding the human journey. The first fires were the quick release of stored sunlight energy that life forms, plants in that instance, had used to build themselves as they made their “decisions,” and it was from vegetation that recently died and was dry enough to burn. The energy was released from burning so fast that it became far hotter (because the molecules were violently "pushed" by the reaction that also released photons) than the biological process of making animals warm-blooded. Hot enough in fact that the released photons' (energetic enough) so that human eyes could see them, in a phenomenon called flames. Flames are visible side-effects of that intense energy release. The rapid movement of the molecules as they rocketed due to that great release of energy is the motion that powers the industrial age. Those rocketing molecules move pistons in automobile engines and , and are behind the damaging explosions of bombs and the propulsive explosions of rockets. For more than one million years, all human fires were made by burning vegetation, and wood in particular. What was fire doing? Energy stored by plants, trees in particular, was violently released by controlled fires for human-serving purposes of warmth, light, food preparation (to obtain more energy from food) and protection from predation, and it also became the heart of social gatherings. Humans have stared into fires for a million years or more.
Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
Water (H2O) is split in this process, releasing oxygen (O2) and hydrogen ions (H+). The electrons from the electron transport chain combine with these H+ ions and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ions (NADP+) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and a reduced unit of NADP+, called NADPH (NADP plus an electron, or H). These energy storage forms, ATP and NADPH, are used to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to build carbohydrates during the second phase of photosynthesis. Plants can then break down these carbohydrates to fuel their existence.
How are plant pigments involved in photosynthesis? | …
Eurasian mountain building was not the only such Miocene event. The , which I have , began , and so is one of Earth’s younger and more rugged ranges. The of California also formed in the Miocene, and the grew into a formidable climatic barrier. The Rocky Mountains also had renewed uplifting in the Miocene, and the . In the mid-Miocene, the northward movement of Australia toward Asia initiated the plate collision that created the Indonesian archipelago, which blocked tropical flow between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Grinding tectonic plates have created the , which is Earth’s most seismically active region, and contributed to many Cenozoic mountain-building and volcanic events, but it is only a pale imitation of Mesozoic volcanism. The has steadily declined over the eons, and in about one billion years the plates will cease to move and Earth will become geologically dead, as Mars is today. Life on Earth will then quickly end, if it has not already expired. Complex life will likely be long gone by then.
Measure what you know about accessory pigments in photosynthesis
What seems to explain invader and endemic success with those migrations is what kind of continent the invaders came from, what kind of continent they invaded, and the invasion route. Asia contains large arctic and tropical biomes, unlike any other continent. North America barely reaches the tropics and only a finger of South America reaches high latitudes, and well short of what would be called arctic latitudes in North America. Africa’s biomes were all tropical and near-tropical. The route to was straight across at the same latitude, so the biomes were similar. About the same is true of the route to Africa from Asia. Asian immigrants were not migrating to climates much different from what they left. But the route to North America was via , which was an Arctic route. Primates and other tropical animals could not migrate from Asia to North America via Beringia, and even fauna from temperate climates were not going to make that journey, not in Icehouse Earth conditions. Oligocene North America was geographically protected in ways that Oligocene Europe and Africa were not, and it already had substantial exchanges with Asia before and was a big continent with diverse biomes in its own right. It was not nearly as isolated as Africa, South America, and Australia were.