The War Against Scholarly Articles On Student Achievement

Cellular metabolism comprises energy transduction machineries that operate by a series of redox-active components to store energies from nutrients, which are transduced into high-energy intermediates for cellular works such as chemical synthesis, transport, and movement. Biological energy transduction mechanism hints at the construction of a man-made energy storage system. Herein, we present a bio-inspired strategy to design high-performance energy devices based on the analogy between energy storage phenomena of mitochondria and lithium rechargeable batteries. Flavins, a key redox element in respiration and photosynthesis, facilitate either one- or two-electron-transfer redox processes accompanying proton transfer at nitrogen atoms of diazabutadiene motif during cellular metabolism. We have successfully demonstrated flavins as a molecularly tunable cathode material that exhibits reversible reactivity with two lithium ions and electrons per formula unit. Analysis of both the ex situ characterizations and density-functional theory (DFT)-based calculations revealed that the redox reaction occurs via two successive single-electron transfer steps, which is analogous to the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism of flavoenzymes. Tailored flavin analogues obtained via chemical substitution on the isoalloxazine ring showed fine tunability of electrochemical properties, exhibiting a gravimetric capacity of 174 mAh/g and an average redox potential of 2.65 V, and its expected energy density is comparable to that of LiFePO4.

four categories of human environmental hazards essay Scholarly Articles On Student Achievement

In nature, quinone plays a vital role in numerous electrochemical reactions for energy transduction and storage; such processes include respiration and photosynthesis. For example, fast proton-coupled electron transfer between primary and secondary quinones in green plants triggers the rapid charge separation of chlorophyll molecules, achieving unparalleled photosynthesis with near-unity quantum yield. In addition, quinone-rich polymers such as eumelanin and polydopamine show unique optical and electrical properties (e.g., strong broadband absorbance or a switching response to external stimuli), mostly arising from their chemically disordered structures. Understanding the unique features of quinone and its derivatives can provide solutions to the construction of bio-inspired systems for energy harvesting and conversion. This paper reviews recent advances in the design of quinone-functionalized hybrid materials based on quinones redox, electrical, optical, and metal chelating/reducing properties to determine these materials applications in energy-harvesting and -storage systems, such as artificial photosynthetic platforms, rechargeable batteries, pseudocapacitors, phototransistors, plasmonic light harvesting platforms, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Photosynthesis Research - SCImago Journal Rank

... and review of importance of Photosynthesis. University of Kentucky, USA - [e]

The main points I am going to look at is how the ocean and plants affect the removal of carbon in our atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis, and how the carbon is added back to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels....

ISPR - International Society of Photosynthesis Research

In green plants, solar-powered electrons are transferred through sophistically arranged photosystems and are subsequently channelled into the Calvin cycle to generate chemical energy. Inspired by the natural photosynthetic scheme, we have constructed a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) configured with protonated graphitic carbon nitride (p-g-C3N4) and carbon nanotube hybrid (CNT/p-g-C3N4) film cathode and FeOOH-deposited bismuth vanadate (FeOOH/BiVO4) photoanode for the production of industrially useful chiral alkanes using an old yellow enzyme homologue from Thermus scotoductus (TsOYE). In the biocatalytic PEC platform, photoexcited electrons provided by the FeOOH/BiVO4 photoanode are transferred to the robust and self-standing CNT/p-g-C3N4 hybrid film that electrocatalytically reduces flavin mononucleotide (FMN) mediator. The p-g-C3N4 promoted a two-electron reduction of FMN coupled with an accelerated electron transfer by the conductive CNT network. The reduced FMN subsequently delivered the electrons to TsOYE for the highly enantioselective conversion of ketoisophorone to (R)-levodione. Under light illumination (> 420 nm) and external bias, (R)-levodione was synthesized with the enantiomeric excess value of above 83%, not influenced by the scale of applied bias, simultaneously exhibiting stable and high current efficiency. Our results suggest that the biocatalytic PEC made up of economical materials can selectively synthesize high-value organic chemicals using water as an electron donor.

Photosynthesis Research is an ..

Photosynthesis is a process which converts the light energy mainly obtained from sun to chemical organic compounds by plants and some other organisms. In atmosphere release of molecular oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide is done by photosynthetic process.