We present an approach that links time-varying (daily time-step) terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models at regional scales and apply this model into the future using scenarios of climate and land cover to project changes in ecosystem services. First, we describe an indicator framework that succinctly represents a comprehensive suite of environmental conditions relevant to important ecosystem services. Second, we describe the linkage and validation of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models to simulate aquatic indicators through the 21st century. We integrated the Photosynthetic Evapotranspiration-Carbon and Nitrogen (PnET-CN) forest ecosystem model (Ollinger et al. 2002, 2008, Aber et al. 2005) and the Framework for the Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (FrAMES) aquatic ecosystem model (Wollheim et al. 2008a, b, Wisser et al. 2010, Stewart et al. 2011, 2013, Mineau et al. 2015; Zuidema, Wollheim, Mineau, et al., unpublished manuscript). These models integrate the dynamics of terrestrial and aquatic processes and linkages at daily time-steps, making them ideal for studying aquatic ecosystem responses in forest-dominated watersheds. In coordination with a separate effort described elsewhere in this special issue (Mavrommati et al. 2017) to assess the value of ecosystem services provided by the Upper Merrimack River watershed (UMRW) of New Hampshire, we contrast two extremes of projected futures in climate and land-cover change. The outcome suggests that climate change influences most indicators of environmental condition in the UMRW more than changes in land cover, although land cover has important interactive capacity to dampen or exacerbate the effects of the changing supply of ecosystem services in the future.
In its simpler form, this experiment is particularly suited to elementary schools.
1 - Put some beans in a little jar containing some moist cotton wool. Keep the jar closedto maintain the humidity. Every day pull out the cotton and observe the state of the seedsand measure the length of their roots.
2 - Students in junior high schools or high schools can try to evaluate the influence ofparameters such as temperature, light and nutrients on the speed of germination of theseeds. If seeds are placed in gelatin, it is possible to observe the germination withoutextracting them from the jar.
3 - You can also collect seeds of different plants and determine their vitality (percentof seeds which germinate) as a function of time to harvest.
Exploring Seed Germination
Germinating Seeds on Gelatin
The Great Seed Mystery For Kids
The Wonderful World of Seeds
Internet keywords: germination seeds student.
PSI: Grade 8 Science - Photosynthesis Experiment
Another problem of the experiment is the amount of
carbon dioxide in the water, to make the experiment a fair test all
plants must have equal amounts of carbon dioxide and enough for the
whole experiment, a way to do this would be to take equal amounts of
potassium hydrogen carbonate and put it with the elodea.
BENZOIC ACID AND SODIUM BENZOATE - INCHEM
It focuses on the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis. It then goes on to show how the chemical energy in plant sugars can be fermented to produce ethanol. Finally, the reasons for using ethanol as a fuel are discussed.In the initial activity, students use paper chromatography to separate plant pigments from leaves. In this module’s second activity the students consider what the source of mass for plants is as they grow. They form hypotheses then design and perform experiments to test their hypotheses. Next the students design an experiment to determine which of three different sugars produces the most fermentation products.