Each antenna complex is able to trap light and transfer energy to a complex of chlorophyll molecules and proteins called the reaction center. Photons are absorbed by chlorophyll and accessory pigments and that energy is eventually transfered to the reaction center where it is absorbed by an excitable electron moving it to a higher energy level. Here the electron can be accepted by an electron acceptor molecule of an electron transport chain where the light energy is converted to chemical energy by chemiosmosis.
Both the LHC and the reaction centers are membrane bound structures but there are no chloroplasts in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The electron transfer processes occur within the cell membrane and the overall process is a cyclic one (i.e., there is no net oxidation-reduction). Protons are transferred across the membrane, from the cytoplasmic side to the outside, establishing a proton gradient whose dissipation drives ATP synthesis. A similar situation holds for the cyanobacteria and plants, but in these organisms, the process occurs in chloroplasts and the overall reaction is not a cyclic one.
Photosynthetic Electron Transport images
2. Meanwhile, photons are also being absorbed by pigment molecules in the antenna complex of Photosystem I and excited electrons from the reaction center are picked up by the primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem I electron transport chain. The electrons being lost by the P700 chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction centers of Photosystem I are replaced by the electrons traveling down the Photosystem II electron transport chain. The electrons transported down the Photosystem I electron transport chain combine with 2H+ from the surrounding medium and NADP+ to produce NADPH + H+ (see Fig. 2 above).
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In the first phase of photosynthesis, cellular protein pigments called chloroplasts are excited by light that propels them into high-energy states. The chloroplasts then transfer this energy through electrons to other protein complexes (read: several proteins stuck together). This group of proteins is called the electron transport chain. The proteins operate similarly to a group of dominoes: after the first one has been pushed, each protein transfers energy to each member along down the line.
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The most common light-dependent reaction in photosynthesis is called noncyclic photophosphorylation. Noncyclic photophosphorylation involves both Photosystem I and Photosystem II and produces ATP and NADPH. During noncyclic photophosphorylation, the generation of ATP is coupled to a one-way flow of electrons from H2O to NADP+.
Photosynthesis and respiration are linked ecologically, ..
1. As photons are absorbed by pigment molecules in the antenna complexes of Photosystem II, excited electrons from the reaction center are picked up by the primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem II electron transport chain. During this process, Photosystem II splits molecules of H2O into 1/2 O2, 2H+, and 2 electrons. These electrons continuously replace the electrons being lost by the P680 chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction centers of the Photosystem II antenna complexes (see Fig. 2).
Proton Pump and Photosynthesis by Carter Allen on Prezi
Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.