No increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency was observed when human whole blood lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 2-phenethyl alcohol (No. 987) for 72 h (Norppa & Vainio, 1983). Also, no increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis was noted when rat hepatocytes were incubated with phenylacetic acid (Heck et al., 1989). Incubation of ethyl phenylacetate at 1000 µg/ml with Chinese hamster fibroblasts for 48 h caused chromosomal aberrations in 3% of cells. On the basis of a threshold of positivity of > 10%, ethyl phenylacetate gave negative results in this assay (Ishidate et al., 1984).
Table 5. Results of short-term and long-term studies of toxicity and carcinogenicity on phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid and related acetals and estersused as flavouring agents
Synthesis of phenethyl bromide by improved …
Phenylacetic acid is a normal component of human urine (250–500 mg/24 h), forming mainly from the breakdown of phenylalanine by intestinal bacteria (Seakins, 1971) or byoxidative deamination of endogenous phenethylamine (Richter, 1938; Seakins, 1971). Orally administered phenethylamine is rapidly metabolized to phenylacetylglutamine. Two volunteers, each fed a 300-mg dose of -phenethyl-amine, excreted 60–62% of the administered dose as conjugated phenylacetic acid in the urine within 2–4.5 h (Richter, 1938; Seakins, 1971). Furthermore, > 80% of [14C]--phenethylamine fed to mice was rapidly excreted from urine as conjugated [14C]phenylacetic acid (Block, 1953).
phenethyl phenyl acetate phenethyl phenylacetate : ..
In such instances, the reactions are often conducted in 60% HSO (eq 4).The CHO/HCl reagent is suitable for chloromethylation of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as heterocyclic aromatic compounds., Thiophene gives 2-(chloromethyl)thiophene in 40-41% isolated yield, and 4-methylimidazole gives the 5-chloromethyl derivative (51-68%) (eq 5).Phenols react readily with CHO/HCl but the initially formed product reacts further to give phenol-formaldehyde resin.
autumn leaves accord - phenethyl phenyl acetate, lilyall and ..
On the basis of the extensive data available on the absorption, distribution and elimination of phenethyl and phenoxyethyl alcohols and phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids, the Committee concluded that, after hydrolysis, the parent alcohols are converted mainly to the corresponding carboxylic acids, which are then rapidly excreted in either free or conjugated form in urine. The pharmacokinetics of phenoxyethyl alcohol derivatives in rats and humans indicate that the rat is an acceptable model for human risk assessment.
PHENETHYL TOSYLATE, CAS Number: 4455-09-8
Phenethyl alcohol is successively oxidized to phenylacetaldehyde and phenylacetic acid in vivo Phenylacetic acid undergoes species-specific conjugation with a variety of amino acids, amines or glucuronic acid, followed by excretion almost exclusively in the urine (James et al., 1972; see Figure 2). Phenethyl alcohol is readily oxidized to phenylacetaldehyde by an assortment of NAD+-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (Bosron & Li, 1980). The greatest activity of mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases (ALDH) occurs in the liver, where they show broad substrate specificity for the oxidation of primary aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Human liver ALDH showed a decreased Michaelis-Menten constant (Km, the concentration of the specific substrate at which a given enzyme yields one-half its maximum velocity with increasing lipophilicity); however, the maximum rate or velocity of an enzymatic reaction which is indicative of all the enzyme active site(s) complexed with substrate, Vmax, remained essentially constant, suggesting that the rate-limiting step does not involve the binding or release of the alcohol or aldehyde intermediate (Pietruszko et al., 1973).
Recommendation for phenethyl benzoate usage levels ..
Quantitative data on natural occurrence and consumption ratios have been reported for 13 phenethyl alcohol derivatives. The consumption ratios for phenethyl alcohol (No. 987), phenethyl acetate (No. 989), phenethyl propionate (No. 990), phenethyl hexanoate (No. 995), phenethyl octanoate (No. 996) and phenylacetaldehyde (No. 1002) are all > 1, indicating that they are consumed predominantly from traditional foods (Stofberg & Kirschman, 1985; Stofberg & Grundschober, 1987). The six flavouring agents that have consumption ratios > 1 represent 67% and 44% of the total annual volume of usage in Europe and the USA, respectively.