The Suzuki reaction is an , classified as a , where the coupling partners are a and an by a . It was first published in 1979 by and he shared the 2010 with and for their effort for discovery and development of palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis. In many publications this reaction also goes by the name Suzuki–Miyaura reaction and is also referred to as the Suzuki coupling. It is widely used to poly-s, s, and substituted s. Several reviews have been published describing advancements and the development of the Suzuki Reaction. The general scheme for the Suzuki reaction is shown below where a carbon-carbon single bond is formed by coupling an species (R1-BY2) with a (R2-X) using a catalyst and a .
This Perspective describes general methods for the preparation of polyfunctional zinc organometallics and their use in Negishi cross-coupling reactions. Recent advances including new ligands and palladium catalysts are described. Related Negishi cross-coupling reactions involving Ni-, Cu-, Co-, and Fe-catalyzed cross-couplings are covered. The availability of a range of zinc organometallics combined with new efficient catalysts allows for efficient cross-coupling reactions with various organic electrophiles under usually mild conditions.
of palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis.
The advantages of Suzuki coupling over other similar reactions are availability of common boronic acids, mild reaction conditions, and its less toxic nature. are less toxic and safer for the environment than and s. It is easy to remove the inorganic by-products from reaction mixture. Hence, this reaction is beneficial for using relatively cheap and easily prepared reagents. Being able to use water as a makes this reaction more economical, eco-friendly, and capable of using wide variety of water-soluble reagents. A wide variety of reagents can be used for the Suzuki coupling, e.g., - or -boronic acids and - or -halides. Work has also extended the scope of the reaction to incorporate alkyl bromides. In addition to many different type of halides being possible for the Suzuki coupling reaction, the reaction also works with s such as s (OTf), as replacements for . The relative reactivity for the coupling partner with the halide or pseudohalide is: R2–I > R2–OTf > R2–Br >> R2–Cl. s and may be used instead of boronic acids. The catalyst can also be a palladium . With a novel (), a catalyst loading of down to 0.001 mol% has been reported:. These advances and the overall flexibility of the process have made the Suzuki coupling widely accepted for chemical synthesis.