Those issues will not be resolved in my lifetime, but migrated past Africa in the . There is evidence and speculation that those humans may have bred with Neanderthals, were killed off by them, migrated across Eurasia, or some combination of those events. There is evidence that or Neanderthal descendants, the , also migrated across Eurasia, perhaps expanding to Southeast Asia as did. The Denisovan evidence arose from analyzing DNA from teeth and bones, which is the only physical evidence of Denisovans discovered so far, and their genes are more prevalent in . To summarize, there is substantial evidence that the human line probably populated Eurasia in significant numbers by 200 kya, and perhaps even anatomically modern humans around 100 kya. They could have driven vulnerable species to extinction, with their advanced toolkit and hunting behaviors, long before behaviorally modern humans left Africa about 60-50 kya. became extinct in East Asia or the islands off of it, and the . Those two primates coexisted for more than a million years and disappeared concurrent with the rise of humans with sophisticated toolsets. They may well have been early casualties of humanity’s success.
The mainstream theory is that matter consists of elementary particles (which are all forms of energy), and is responsible for all mass. Almost all mass in the known universe consists of protons in hydrogen atoms, and those protons are in turn , and electrons and neutrinos are the other first generation fundamental particles. Protons have a positive electric charge, electrons a negative charge, and neutrinos no net charge. The simplest atom consists of one proton in the nucleus and one electron in “orbit” around it, which is the most common atom. Today, mainstream science recognizes four forces in the universe: , , and the and forces in an atom’s nucleus. Gravity attracts matter to matter, and is thought to be responsible for the formation of stars, planets, and galaxies. But the universe seems to be built from , not objects.
George W. Beadle's One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis …
All of those hard-to-believe events aside, I became a student of genius while under my first professional mentor’s tutelage. The sold me on him (as well as that voice leading me to him), but when I to help rebuild his effort, it quickly became evident that I was learning from another world-class genius, and I avidly studied his efforts. As far as I know, is the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. He probably did his most interesting work before I met him. He invented the , and his were awe-inspiring. Dennis was an untrained businessman, but his ability to erect a disruptive energy technology company with no capital and create the entire process, from developing the technology to building it, marketing it, and installing it, is the best that I have ever seen or heard of, and his public image rarely even touched upon his unparalleled talent in that area. Yet those abilities paled beside his other qualifications, which . That voice knew what it was doing in leading me to Dennis, but playing Indiana Jones’s sidekick was not an easy ride, and I have generally rejected Dennis’s entreaties to rejoin him after I . Even as I write this, I know that our story seems ridiculously fanciful, but it all happened and more, with connections and events I am not at liberty to publicly disclose that makes journey resemble . As dramatic as those events were, our focus was always on bringing FE to the world.
One gene–one enzyme hypothesis - WikiVisually
Why doesn’t the cell have more catalase to protect it from damaging free radicals?
One hypothesis is that free radicals may be important in early development in that they may promote cell division and increase the rate of development. It is interesting that in biological systems the emphasis is on propagation of the species and not so much on longevity. What may be good for rapid growth and protection of the animal until the age of reproduction may be detrimental to the organism in later years. Not a pleasant thought as it implies once we have reproduced ourselves, we are no longer needed for the good of our species.
Meaning of One-Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis 2
This work also implies, however, that it is unlikely that one antioxidant, in this case catalase, is a “silver bullet” to promote longevity to a maximum. Even if it were, enzymes do not lend themselves to formulation as a tablet or capsule. During digestion, enzymes generally are transformed, rather than absorbed into the bloodstream in their active state; thus, they cannot be taken in pill form to increase cellular levels. To increase levels in humans, the enzyme would probably have to be inserted into our genome. This is not a likely scenario in the near future.