Several thousand Jews were saved from deportation and death by non-Jews who, at therisk of their own lives, hid and helped them. On 19 August 1953 the Israeli parliamentpassed a law making it the duty of the State of Israel to recognize the work done bynon-Jews in saving Jewish lives during the war. An expression of honour, 'Righteous amongthe Nations', was awarded, in the name of the Jewish people, to every non-Jewish person orfamily who had risked their lives to save Jews. Evidence of such action has to comeinitially from one of those who were actually saved. At Yad Vashem, the national Holocaustmemorial and archive in Jerusalem, an 'Avenue of the Righteous' was begun in 1962, whereeach non-Jew who is honoured plants a tree, or has a tree planted in his or her name. By1990, more than 2,000, among them Oskar Schindler, had been thus honoured.
Might it not be better to say: no legal philosopher need, or should,be a legal positivist? For law's dependence upon social facts isfully acknowledged, and also accounted for, in natural law theories oflaw. And this is not a “concession” by natural lawtheorists, for their main positions were clearly articulated byAquinas, many centuries before legal positivism emerged with itschallenge to (what it took to be) natural law theory. Positivistcritiques of natural law theory, when they do not rest upon scepticismabout the possibility of moral judgment, a scepticism implicitlydisavowed in the above passage, rest on misunderstanding of passagesfrom the works of natural law theorists. On such misunderstandings,see Finnis 1980, 23–55; Soper 1992.
Chronicles Germany's Nuremberg laws …
Soon after Adolph Hitler became Germany’s chancellor in January 1933, he began instituting policies that isolated German Jews and subjected them to persecution. Among other things, Hitler’s , which espoused extreme German nationalism and anti-Semitism, commanded that all Jewish businesses be boycotted and all Jews be dismissed from civil-service posts. In May 1933, the writings of Jewish and other “un-German” authors were burned in a communal ceremony at Berlin’s Opera House. Within two years, German businesses were publicly announcing that they no longer serviced Jews. The Nuremberg Laws, passed in September 1935, decreed that only Aryans could be full German citizens. Furthermore, it became illegal for Aryans and Jews to marry or have extramarital intercourse.
Ethics and Business - Wutsamada
From the perspective of both layers, is perched at the vanishing point of international law, but is simultaneously a crucial test for international law. From the perspective of the first layer, it is astonishing but essential for our understanding of the nature and reality of international law to see that law governs inter-State relations even when they are belligerent, even when the very existence of a State is at stake, and even when the most important rule of the first layer – the prohibition of the use of force – has been violated or when a government has been unable to impose its monopoly of violence within the territory of the State. In the latter case, which is tantamount to a non-international armed conflict, what is most striking is not so much the fact that international law regulates a situation that transcends the axioms of the first layer, but the fact that its international rules apply not only to the use of force by the government but also directly to all violent human behaviour in the situation. From the perspective of the second layer, it is perhaps even more difficult to conceive – but essential to understand – that international law governs human behaviour, even when violence is used, and even when essential features of the organized structure of the international and national community have fallen apart. No national legal system contains similar rules on how those who violate its primary rules have to behave while violating them.
Dietrich and his twin sister Sabine are born on February 4
His explanation, slightly updated: this very large part of our lawcould reasonably have been different, in the way that every detail ofa maternity hospital could have been somewhat different and largeportions of the design could have been very different, even thoughsome features (e.g., that the doors and ceilings are more than two feethigh) are entailed by the commission to build a town maternityhospital, and every feature has some rational connection withthe commission. The kind of rational connection that holds even wherethe architect has wide freedom to choose amongst indefinitely manyalternatives is called by Aquinas a determinatio ofprinciple(s)—a kind of concretization of the general, aparticularization yoking the rational necessity of the principle witha freedom (of the law-maker) to choose between alternativeconcretizations, a freedom which includes even elements of (in abenign sense) arbitrariness.