1) What is the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis?
2) What are the two categories of minerals?
3) What is a macronutrient?
4) What is a disaccharide?
Testing for Nutrients
Starch- Using iodine
-If iodine turns black/blue starch is present
Simple Sugars- Using Benedict's solution
- if it turns red, simple sugars are present
Fats/Lipids- using paper towel
-if liquid dries up, no fat is present
Protein- Nitric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide in a hot water bath
-if it turns yellow if protein is present
The opposite chemical reaction occurs when polymers are separated into individual monomers. reactions incorporate the atoms from a water molecule into each monomer as the chemical bond between the monomers is broken (hydrolysis = water “loosens” the bond). In hydrolysis reactions, water participates in the chemical reaction as a reactant. A cell’s collective metabolism results from the balance between these reciprocal reactions. Cells use dehydration synthesis reactions to build the functional biomolecules that support life. When biomolecules are damaged or no longer needed, cells use hydrolysis reactions to degrade the polymers and frequently recycle the monomers to form new biomolecules.
Chapter 3, Carbon, Dehydration and Hydrolysis
There are 2 main categories of nutrients....
Carbs: - Dissacharides
2 simple sugars (Glu-Glu, Glu-Fru, Glu-Galactose)
Broken down in small intestine
Long term energy storage
100's or 1000's of glucose linked together
Digestion starts in mouth (amylase) and continues in small intestine
Proteins: Tissue building enzymes
1000's of amino acids linked together
digestion starts in stomach and ends in small intestine
End up with individual amino acids
Fats/ Lipids: Important for cell membrane, insulation,
Glycerol and fatty acids linked together
Digested in small intestine
Saturated and Unsaturated
2) Minerals (2 categories)
-5% of our body weight
-essential for muscle contraction and blood clotting, protein synthesis
-body requires approximately 21 minerals
-Mg, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl
-Fe, Mn, Cu, I, Co, Zn, F
Hydrolysis is the cleavage or breaking down of chemical bonds, when water is added.