According to popular belief, eating tryptophan in turkey meat causes drowsiness. Turkey does contain tryptophan, which does have a documented sleep-inducing effect as it is readily converted into serotonin by the body. However, ingestion of turkey alone has not been proven to have this effect. An additional hypothetical mechanism is as follows: A large quantity of any food,[original research?] such as a Thanksgiving feast, introduces large quantities of both carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids releasing insulin. Insulin stimulates the uptake of large neutral branched-chain amino acids (and not tryptophan) by muscle cells through the myocyte membranes. The result is an increase in the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids in the blood. This reduces competition with other amino acids for the Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter protein for uptake of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system. Once inside the central nervous system, tryptophan is converted into serotonin by the raphe nuclei, and serotonin is further metabolised into melatonin by the pineal gland.
Alcoholic beverage consumption at holiday feasts is likely to compound the effect.[original research?]
Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and also the citric acid cycle.
1. Role in biosynthesis of amino acids
The imidazole side chains and the relatively neutral pKa of histidine (ca 6.0) mean that relatively small shifts in cellular pH will change its charge. For this reason, this amino acid side chain finds its way into considerable use as a co-ordinating ligand in metalloproteins, and also as a catalytic site in certain enzymes. The imidazole side chain has two nitrogens with different properties: One is bound to hydrogen and donates its lone pair to the aromatic ring and as such is slighty acidic, whereas the other one donates only one electron pair to the ring so it has a free lone pair and is basic. These properties are exploited in different ways in proteins. In catalytic triads, the basic nitrogen of histidine is used to abstract a proton from serine, threonine or cysteine to activate it as a nucleophile. In a histidine proton shuttle, histidine is used to quickly shuttle protons, it can do this by abstracting a proton with its basic nitrogen to make a positively-charged intermediate and then use another molecule, a buffer, to extract the proton from its acidic nitrogen. In carbonic anhydrases, a histidine proton shuttle is utilized to rapidly shuttle protons away from a zinc-bound water molecule to quickly regenerate the active form of the enzyme.
Definitions of lysine riboswitch, ..
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lysine biosynthesis, aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis, and amyotrophic ..
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Amino Acid Biosynthesis - eLS: Essential for Life Science
Cysteine is required by sheep in order to produce wool, however it is an essential amino-acid that cannot be synthesised by the sheep and must be taken in as food from grass. This means that during drought conditions sheep stop producing wool; however, transgenic sheep have been developed which can make their own cysteine. A little concentration of cysteine is used to break the disulfide bonds during the solublisation of recombinant protein preparation.
Amino acid | Amino Acid | Biosynthesis
Glutamic acid (Glu, E), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. It is not among the essential amino acids.
Usage of the term amino acid in the English language is from 1898
When applied to a wound, iodine can slow down healing by interfering with tyrosine kinase. This enzyme catalyzes the mating of tyrosine with phosphorous, an event known to initiate cell division, a crucial step in healing and repair of tissues. In addition, by binding with the polyunsaturated fats and amino acids in cell membranes, iodide breaks down the cell walls in healing tissue and repeated applications will gradually erode the granulation tissue and enlarge the size of the wound. This does not seem to occur after the use of povidone-iodine, an iodine polymer diluted to 10 percent strength. This product is effective as an antiseptic for surgery and first aid and it does not cause pain nor delay healing.