Oestergaard LG, Nielsen CV, Bünger CE, Sogaard R, Fruensgaard S, Helmig P, Christensen FB. The Effect of Early Initiation of Rehabilitation After Lumbar Spinal Fusion. A Randomized Clinical Study. Spine 2012 ; 37 :1803 – 1809
Isthmic spondylolisthesis can be the result of a genetic failure of bone formation in the spinal vertebrae; usually physical stresses to the spine then break down the weak or insufficiently formed vertebral components. Repeated heavy lifting, stooping, or twisting can cause small fractures to occur in the vertebral structure and lead to the slippage of one vertebra over another. Weightlifters, football players, and gymnasts often suffer from this disorder due to the considerable stress placed on their spines.
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis: Background, …
Dufour N, Thamsborg G, Oefeldt A, Lundsgaard C, Stender S. Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain A Randomized, Clinical Trial Comparing Group-Based Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation and IntensiveIndividual Therapist-Assisted Back Muscle Strengthening Exercises. SPINE2010, Volume 35, Number 5, pp 469–476
Balderston, RA et al, Iatrogenic lumbar spondylolisthesis: ..
Gibson JN, Grant IC, Waddell G (1999) The Cochrane review of surgery for lumbar disc prolapse and degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine, 24(17): 1820-32.
Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Michigan | ALIF | XLIF Royal Oak
Geisler FH, Blumenthal SL, Guyer RD, McAfee PC, Regan JJ, Johnson JP, Mullin B (2004) Neurological complications of lumbar artificial disc replacement and comparison of clinical results with those related to lumbar arthrodesis in the literature: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized investigational device exemption study of Charite intervertebral disc. Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004. J Neurosurg Spine, 1(2): 143-54.
How can the answer be improved?
Fritzell P, Hagg O, Nordwall A (2003) Complications in lumbar fusion surgery for chronic low back pain: comparison of three surgical techniques used in a prospective randomized study. A report from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Eur Spine J, 12(2): 178-89.
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis - eSpine
Madan S, Boeree NR (2003) Outcome of the Graf ligamentoplasty procedure compared with anterior lumbar interbody fusion with the Hartshill horseshoe cage. Eur Spine J, 12(4): 361-8.