Grading will be calculated as follows:

both East Germany and Hungary were *already* under the sphere of control of at the time ever expanding --then Soviet union. However both Guatemala as well as Iran, where crucial pieces in a global thug of war over the control and expansion into areas with strategic importance.

Smith, Hadfield & Dunne (SHD): Introduction
Photo provided by Flickr

Thus, during the election Eisenhower posited himself as the dynamic and assertive alternative to the passive, perhaps even lethargic, Democrats. Nevertheless, as Barry Rubin contends, the anxious political climate of the Cold War predisposed the Eisenhower administration “toward a greater suspicion of Third World nationalism.”25 In the bipolar international system of the Cold War, neutral and nationalist regimes were almost reflexively viewed with suspicion; as such movements were seen as susceptible to communist infiltration. Consequently, this inclination undoubtedly influenced the administration’s perception of Mossadegh’s nationalist platform, as well as the perceived strength and intentions of the Tudeh party.


Operation Ajax: A case study in misperception

Section 2: Actors, Structure and Rationality
Photo provided by Flickr

Cognitive complexity “is discerned by the degree of differentiation one shows in describing his/her environment.”82 Individuals with a relatively simplistic cognitive structure will tend to describe the world in bipolar, black and white terms; whereas cognitively complex individuals will be more apt to include shades of grey.83 Accordingly, decision-makers with more complex cognitive structures will be more inclined to change or evolve their belief system as compared to decision-makers with more simplistic structures. Importantly, as Ziv states, these two concepts are mutually reinforcing, as “one must be sufficiently open to assimilate information from the environment in order to differentiate and integrate this information.”84


work in progress...................

During the next twenty-four hours, Mossadegh was captured and imprisoned pending a trial. Most of the Iranian diplomatic and consular offices carried on as usual. On the following day the governmental machinery was for the most part functioning. Zahedi proceeded to set up a new cabinet for the Shah’s approval. The Shah, who was in Rome on the day that Zahedi took office, returned to Tehran on August 22. I have never seen Tehran so happy as it was when it greeted him back.

Section 7: Public Opinion, the Media and Foreign Policy

Pardon of a murderer; biting more than he could chew; inability to anticipate British reaction. What use is a leader who does not see the obvious.

Neack: "National Self-Image, Culture, and Domestic Institutions"

Dear Fariba it is pretty obvious to me that you view this as an inter-clan war. In other words a personal grudge between Mossadegh and Shah. In that case Shah is my definite choice. The Ghajars were vile and incompetent.

(483) For alternative ideas about misperception, see my exceptsfrom .

the countryside were now under the control of the army, which had come out for the Shah and his father. He added that his father had asked him to inquire if I had any suggestions to offer. After a minute’s thought I said, "Yes, I have three suggestions. In the first place, I think every effort should be made to prevent Mossadegh from being harmed or killed. If he is taken prisoner, care should be exercised to make sure he is not physically abused. The question of his punishment, if any, should be left to the courts. In the second place, a circular telegram might be sent out at once to all the Iranian diplomatic missions and consular offices informing them that the new Prime Minister appointed by the Shah has taken over and they should continue to transact their business as usual. No revolution has taken place, merely a change in government. My third suggestion is that a similar announcement might be made for the benefit of the civil