Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny. The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past. Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine.
Another major advance happened in the late 20th century: the ability to analyze DNA. was discovered in 1953. In 1973, . In 2003, . was accomplished in 2005, for orangutans in 2011, and for in 2012. The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from , due to Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16,000 to 13,000 years ago, , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like. Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements. In 2010, suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. DNA testing has demonstrated that all of today’s humans are , of whom a few hundred and conquered Earth. The , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that , -style. Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the 1980s.
Iron–sulfur world hypothesis - WikiVisually
As is well known, the multiplication of hypotheses—e.g., those regarding the mechanisms of action of copper bracelets—can help an investigation to avoid an overly narrow set of possible solutions. So this technique possesses intrinsic value, even if many of the hypotheses turn out to be wrong.
What is the iron sulfide bubble hypothesis?
Whether these hypotheses, concepts, and analogies might be borne out by careful testing remains an open question. But they afford the researcher some tools that can be used to pry open the various mysteries of medicinal bracelets. So it is a way of performing scientific detective work by asking lots of questions and making lots of provisional guesses. Hardly conclusive, and not likely to win approval from peer reviewers; but appropriate for the early stage of investigation where medicinal bracelets now are found.
Make a Mixture and a Compound from Iron and Sulfur
Thus the hypothesis that silver jewelry may be implicated in IDA can be viewed as a corollary of the general theory of Transdermal Micronutrition. At the very least, in light of the dimensions of the problem of IDA, the possibility that silver jewelry plays a role deserves to be carefully studied, if only to be ruled out.
Iron and sulfur - The Royal Society of Chemistry
A final note: thus far zinc has proven itself far more amenable to being dispensed from a bracelet than has iron. Even though one can achieve excellent effects with iron in certain circumstances, skin irritation and staining of skin and clothing represent formidable barriers to acceptance by many people. So in the long run the various arguments and experiments on iron in the chapter may prove to have mainly scientific interest, though it may also turn out that substantial numbers of people can benefit from transdermal iron and will not be deterred by what they deem minor inconveniences. At any rate, it is possible that the goal of treating iron deficiency anemia, which provided the original impulse for the investigation of medicinal bracelets, may forever elude us. Yet it still will have played an important role by leading us to understand and deploy copper, zinc, and magnets in an optimal and scientifically based manner.
Students work in groups to investigate iron and sulfur
With by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview. Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. Scientific practice is subject to human foibles, just as all human endeavors are. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.