b) Integrated hypothesis c) individualistic hypothesis

Secondly, application of mathematical concepts within a systematic approach suggests that the issue of connection between hereditary and acquired individual properties is a special case of a more general problem of connection of individual properties of different levels. For example, the connection between the properties of a common type of nervous system and relationships of an individual is the connection of the hereditary and the acquired.

a. Historical and contemporary examples  b. Weaknesses of kinship-based systems

For Western peace research, this represents a shift from secular towards spiritual peace paradigms, a realization that inner peace and outer peace-- spiritual and material--are interconnected and interdependent. It is here that the contributions of the world's religious and spiritual traditions can help us better understand holistic peace. For example, the idea that the collective external world of outer peace is in some way a representation or image of the collective inner world of spiritual peace, may be of particular importance in the creation of a holistic, inner and outer global culture of peace. The variety and diversity of humanity's religious life, as celebrated in the ecumenical tradition, would then provide a dynamic link between the inner and outer worlds, such that inner-outer peace would be manifest in all aspects of a culture of peace--including macro and micro social and economic institutions, local and global values, art, literature, music, technology, meditation and prayer. The resulting culture of peace would display a Gaia-like global pattern, where the interacting local cultures are manifestations of the inner unity and outer diversity principle spread throughout the whole system. Definitions of reality would be fundamentally different under such a paradigm. Whereas "reality" in Western Peace Theory has previously been defined in terms of aspects of the material world, leading to a concentration on economic, military and political questions, "reality" under a holistic peace paradigm includes both material and spiritual components. A holistic culture of peace (balancing inner and outer, feminine and masculine, material and spiritual in a both/and framework) will lead to a completely different outcome to peace theories that concentrate on changing the outer world, but do not balance such concerns with a parallel and interdependent exploration of the inner.

What is the interactive hypothesis in ecology? | Yahoo Answers

An economic writer and Professor Isaac Ehrlich put more effort on his theory which showed that death penalty was a restriction to crime.

The relevance of "new thinking" or a shift in consciousness--as seen in the dynamic interdependent, whole systems views in the new scientific paradigms and experiences of mystics from different religious traditions--to world peace can be seen as follows. Once our consciousness shifts from seeing the world as divided up into separate, unrelated parts (whether individuals, groups, nation-states or whatever), where the goal is to win for one's own self or group or nation, without adequate concern for others, to a new more dynamic interdependent, whole systems worldview, where everything is interconnected, and whatever happens in any part of the system effects all the other parts of the system--it becomes apparent that the only way that individuals or separate parts of the whole can "win" is if other peoples and parts of the whole also win. A fundamental shift from win-lose to win-win thinking then ensues, which seems a fundamental prerequisite and framework for creating a global culture of peace.

when he proposed the individualistic/open ..

This section of the course reviews the social structure of major social institutions, including the family, education, religion, the economy and work, government, and health care. Major questions asked include how institutions are organized, how inequality is reproduced and/or challenged in institutions, how institutions change, and how institutions vary across and within different societies/cultures. Students will understand what sociologists mean by social institutions, and will understand examples of major social institutions in Western societies. The course will analyze how social institutions develop as they do in different societies.

Social facilitation - Wikipedia

The ideas that genes carry information about phenotypic traits, thatthey encode for proteins, and that they contain a blueprint fororganismic development, are all widely accepted in the biologicalsciences and in broader representations of what genes do. Yet it isonly recently that these ideas have been recognized as forming part ofa cluster of claims that make up an informational metaphor forcharacterizing genetic agency, with the status of that metaphor acontinuing topic of debate. This information metaphor predates thediscovery of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, havingits roots in the cybernetic tradition led by the physicists NorbertWiener and Erwin Schrödinger in the 1940s and ‘50s. Themetaphor also subsumes talk of genetic programming, instructions, andrecipes. Evelyn Fox Keller (2000) has argued that this blending ofcomputational and coding metaphors was productive for geneticistsbecause it allowed the development of a notion of genetic action inabsence of detailed knowledge of the biochemical structures andmechanisms in which such action was ultimately realized. In our view,the informational metaphor has also contributed to a misleading view ofthe kinds of individuals or agents that genes are. This is so tothe extent that the metaphor has implied that genes are self-contained andautonomous agents in their own right, agents whose intrinsic propertieshold the secret to understanding a wide range of phenomena in thebiological world.