Infraspinatus muscle - Wikipedia

AB - Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of ultrasound (US) pathologic abnormalities in the shoulders of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and to compare them with the main clinical findings. Methods. Ninety-seven PsA patients were enrolled in the study. The subacromial/ subdeltoid bursa, the sheath of the long biceps tendon, the glenohumeral joint and the acromion-clavicular joint were examined for the presence of synovial effusions and synovial hypertrophy. Rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus) were imaged for tendinosis, calcifications and total or partial tears, while deltoid enthesis were evaluated for local enthesitis and the lesser and greater tuberosity of the humerus for the presence of enthesophytes. Results. Tendinosis represented the most frequent abnormal finding. Supraspinatus tendinosis was detected more often than subscapularis and infraspinatus tendinosis. When considering tendon tear, supraspinatus was also the most frequently involved anatomical structure. Clinical examination frequently failed to detect abnormalities in patients in whom US examination showed pathological findings. This is particularly true for tendon involvement, i.e. effusion within the sheath of the biceps tendon was imaged in 43 shoulders but clinical assessment reported abnormalities only in 22 shoulders (p

This image shows the foot and the Achilles enthesis or tendon

AB - Introduction An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Materials and Methods Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy- Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Results Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVXPTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Conclusion Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone density of the humeral head and may improve the mechanical properties of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis.


Subscapularis Tendon addiction of a legend Tears

Rotator cuff tendinosis and intermediate to high grade partial articular sided tear of the infraspinatus.

Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of ultrasound (US) pathologic abnormalities in the shoulders of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and to compare them with the main clinical findings. Methods. Ninety-seven PsA patients were enrolled in the study. The subacromial/ subdeltoid bursa, the sheath of the long biceps tendon, the glenohumeral joint and the acromion-clavicular joint were examined for the presence of synovial effusions and synovial hypertrophy. Rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus) were imaged for tendinosis, calcifications and total or partial tears, while deltoid enthesis were evaluated for local enthesitis and the lesser and greater tuberosity of the humerus for the presence of enthesophytes. Results. Tendinosis represented the most frequent abnormal finding. Supraspinatus tendinosis was detected more often than subscapularis and infraspinatus tendinosis. When considering tendon tear, supraspinatus was also the most frequently involved anatomical structure. Clinical examination frequently failed to detect abnormalities in patients in whom US examination showed pathological findings. This is particularly true for tendon involvement, i.e. effusion within the sheath of the biceps tendon was imaged in 43 shoulders but clinical assessment reported abnormalities only in 22 shoulders (p