Generalization and Specialization Leads to Version Space Convergence

One would cease transmitting every four days to ten years, and if the cessation curve was predictable in space and time, this would be experimental evidence of a developmental transcension hypothesis.

Version Space Method Learning Algorithm: Candidate-Elimination

But that is not all. I imagined the dimensions of the world changing,but at least the world remaining always similar to itself. Wecan go much further than that, and one of the most surprisingtheories of modern physicists will furnish the occasion. Accordingto a hypothesis of Lorentz and Fitzgerald, all bodies carriedforward in the earth's motion undergo a deformation. This deformationis, in truth, very slight, since all dimensions parallel withthe earth's motion are diminished by a hundred-millionth, whiledimensions perpendicular to this motion are not altered. Butit matters little that it is slight; it is enough that it shouldexist for the conclusion I am soon going to draw from it. Besides,though I said that it is slight, I really know nothing about it. I have myself fallen a victim to the tenacious illusion thatmakes us believe that we think of an absolute space. I was thinkingof the earth's motion on its elliptical orbit round the sun, andI allowed 18 miles a second for its velocity. But its true velocity(I mean this time, not its absolute velocity, which has no sense,but its velocity in relation to the ether), this I do not knowand have no means of knowing. It is, perhaps, 10 or 100 timesas high, and then the deformation will be 100 or 10,000 timesas great.


Comments on the Version Space Method

The version space method handles positive and negative examples symmetrically.

When viewed this way, scientific theories advanced within the LOTH framework are not, strictly speaking, committed topreserving the folk taxonomy of the mental states in any very exactway. Notions like belief, desire, hope, fear, etc. are folk notionsand, as such, it may not be utterly plausible to expect (eliminativistarguments aside) that a scientific psychology will preserve the exactcontours of these concepts. On the contrary, there is every reason tobelieve that scientific counterparts of these notions will carve themental space somewhat differently. For instance, it has been notedthat the folk notion of belief harbors many distinctions. For example,it has both a dispositional and an occurrent sense. In the occurrentsense, it seems to mean something like consciously entertaining andaccepting a thought (proposition) as true. There is quite a bit ofliterature and controversy on the dispositional sense.[] Beliefs are also capable of being explicitly stored in long termmemory as opposed to being merely dispositional or tacit. Compare, forinstance: I believe that there was a big surprise party for my 24thbirthday vs. I have always believed that lions don't eat their foodwith forks and knives, or that 13652/4=3413, even though until nowthese latter two thoughts had never occurred to me. There isfurthermore the issue of degree of belief: while I may believe thatGeorge will come to dinner with his new girlfriend even though Iwouldn't bet on it, you, thinking that you know him better than I do,may nevertheless go to the wall for it. It is unlikely that there willbe one single construct of scientific psychology that will exactlycorrespond to the folk notion of belief in all these ways.


What is a Hypothesis Space? - YouTube

Space debris is all the small pieces of non-functional, human-generated material in Earth’s orbit (though this is something of a silly definition since a creative human can find a function for anything and non-human generated particles are just as dangerous as those human-made). Most space debris is comprised of garbage previously pushed out from space stations, retired satellites, rocket cartridges, and collisions between these items. Space debris can remain in orbit for decades and generally does so at speeds exceeding 10,000 km/h. Of course, what really matters is the relative speed of impact during collisions. While the accumulating space debris prompted full shielding of the International Space Station, it’s probably not feasible to fully shield space suits. Therefore, every space walk is a calculated risk whose odds are growing worse. Odds at orbits further out are even less favourable (see Figure 2). On account of the space debris problem, NASA has recently considered cancelling their planned repairs and upgrades to the Hubble Space Telescope, one of the most informative and popular tools in astronomy’s rich history (1). The importance of a safe near-Earth orbit cannot be overstated. Satellite communication dependent on an intricate array of hundreds of orbiting transmitters and receivers underlies our cell phones, banking systems, military, weather/environment monitoring and forecasting, and more. Plus, our view of the universe, as in the case of Hubble and a collection of other telescopic satellites and sensing probes, requires a safe near-Earth orbit. All these technologies are of immediate importance. But perhaps even more critical than the use of Earth’s orbit to allow us to operate as we do on Earth today, is the use of Earth’s orbit to allow us to operate as we will have to off Earth tomorrow. For it is well accepted that sooner or later the cosmos will absolutely force us to do just that.

Hypothesis Space Search (ML) - Bethopedia

We see in how large a sense we must understand the relativityof space. Space is in reality amorphous, and it is only thethings that are in it that give it a form. What are we to think,then, of that direct intuition we have of a straight line or ofdistance? We have so little the intuition of distance in itselfthat, in a single night, as we have said, a distance could becomea thousand times greater without our being able to perceive it,if all other distances had undergone the same alteration. Andin a night the universe B might even be substituted for the universeA without our having any means of knowing it, and then the straightlines of yesterday would have ceased to be straight, and we shouldnot be aware of anything.